Tuesday, March 24, 2009


Music is an art form whose medium is sound organized in time. Common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike), "(art) of the Muses".[1]

The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art.

Friday, May 2, 2008

Broom Hill (Greater Victoria)
Broom Hill is a rural neighbourhood in Sooke, British Columbia. Its residential subdivisions surround a hill of gabbro which rises to an elevation of 274 metres (899 feet). Above the subdivisions, most of the terrain has a forest cover dominated by Douglas-fir.

Thursday, May 1, 2008

Yala Province Geography

For more details on this topic, see South Thailand insurgency.Yala Province History
Yala is one of the four provinces of Thailand where the majority of the population are Muslim, making up 68.9% of the population. Also 66.1% of the population are Malay.

Yala is subdivided into 8 districts (Amphoe), which are further subdivided into 56 communes (tambon) and 341 villages (muban).

Mueang Yala
Bannang Sata
Than To
Krong Pinang

Wednesday, April 30, 2008

The invention of magnetic disk storage, pioneered by IBM in the 1950s, was a critical component of the computer revolution. This article surveys the major IBM computer disk drives introduced in the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s.
The basic mechanical arrangement of hard disk drives hasn't changed since the IBM 1301. Disk drive performance and characteristics are measured the same today as they were in the 1950s. This survey concludes with a modern (2004) PC hard drive for comparison. Few products in history have enjoyed such a spectacular decline in cost and size with such a stellar improvement in capacity.

IBM 350
The IBM 353 used on the IBM 7030, was similar to the IBM 1301, but much faster. It had a capacity of 2,097,152 (2

Early IBM disk storage IBM 353
The IBM 355 was announced on September 14, 1956 as an addition to the popular IBM 650. It used the same mechanism as the IBM 350 and stored 6 million 7-bit decimal digits. Data was transferred to and from the IBM 653 magnetic core memory, an IBM 650 option that stored just sixty 10-digit words, enough for a single sector of disk or tape data.

IBM 355
The IBM 1405 Disk Storage Unit was announced by 1961 and was designed for use with the IBM 1401 series medium scale business computers. The 1405 stored 10 million characters on a single module. Each module had 25 large disks, yielding 50 recording surfaces. The disks spun at 1200 RPM. The Model 1 had one module, the Model 2 had two modules, stacked vertically. Each recording surface had 200 tracks and 5 sectors per track. Data was read or recorded at 22,500 characters per second. A single arm moved in and out and up and down. Access time ranged from 100 to 800 milliseconds (Model 2).

IBM 1301
The IBM 1302 Disk Storage Unit was introduced in September 1963. Improved recording quadrupled its capacity over that of the 1301, to 117 million 6-bit characters per module. Average access time was 165 ms and data could be transferred at 180 K characters/second, more than double the speed of the 1301. A second arm accessed a separate group of 250 tracks. As with the 1301, there was a Model 2 with twice the capacity. The IBM 1302 Model 1 leased for $5,600 per month or could be purchased for $252,000. Prices for the Model 2 were $7,900 per month or $355,500 to purchase. The IBM 7631 controller cost an additional $1,185 per month or $56,000 to purchase. The 1302 was withdrawn in February 1965.

IBM 1302
The IBM 1311 Disk Storage Drive was announced on October 11, 1962 and was designed for use with several medium-scale business and scientific computers. The 1311 was about the size and shape of a top-loading washing machine and stored 2 million characters on a removable IBM 1316 disk pack. Each disk pack was 4 inches high, weighed 10 pounds (4.5 kg) and contained six 14-inch diameter disks, yielding 10 recording surfaces (the outer surfaces were not used). The 10 individual R/W heads were mounted on a common actuator which was moved in and out hydraulically and mechanically detented at the desired track before reading or writing occurred. The disks spun at 1500 RPM. Each recording surface had 100 tracks with 20 sectors per track. Each sector stored 100 characters. Seven models of the 1311 were introduced during the 1960s. They were withdrawn during the early 1970s.
Models of the 1311 disk drive
The optional special features were
Drive 1 (the master drive: models 1, 3, 4, and 5) was about a foot wider than the other drives (the slave drives: model 2), to contain extra power supplies and the control logic.
The IBM 1316 Disk Packs were covered with a clear plastic shell and a bottom cover when not in use. A lifting handle in the top center of the cover was rotated to release the bottom cover. Then the top of the 1311 drive was opened and the plastic shell was lowered into the disk drive opening (assuming it was empty). The handle was turned again to lock the disks in place and release the plastic shell, which was then removed and the drive cover closed. The process was reversed to remove a disk pack.

Must be drive 1 on an IBM 1440, IBM 1460, or IBM 1240 system. Contains the controller and can control up to 4 – Model 2 drives. Introduced October 11, 1962. Withdrawn February 8, 1971.
Slave drive. Could have any special feature incorporated that the master drive (drive 1) had incorporated. Introduced October 11, 1962. Withdrawn January 6, 1975.
Must be drive 1 on an IBM 1620 or IBM 1710 system. Contains the controller and can control up to 3 – Model 2 drives. Did not support any special features. Introduced October 11, 1962. Withdrawn May 12, 1971.
Must be drive 1 on an IBM 1401 system. Contains the controller and can control up to 4 – Model 2 drives. Introduced October 11, 1962. Withdrawn February 8, 1971.
Must be drive 1 on an IBM 1410, IBM 7010, or IBM 7740 system. Contains the controller and can control up to 4 – Model 2 drives. Direct Seek comes standard on this model. Introduced January 7, 1963. Withdrawn May 12, 1971.
No information available, probably a master drive (drive 1). Introduced March 5, 1968. Withdrawn February 2, 1971.
No information available, probably a master drive (drive 1). Introduced March 5, 1968. Withdrawn February 2, 1971.
Direct Seek: Without this option every seek returned to track zero first.
Scan Disk: Automatic rapid search for identifier or condition.
Seek Overlap: Allowed a seek to overlap ONE read or write and any number of other seeks.
Track Record: Increased the capacity of the disk by writing ONE large record per track instead of using sectors. IBM 1311
The IBM 2311 Direct Access Storage Facility was introduced in 1964 for use throughout the System/360 series. It was also available on the IBM 1130. The 2311 mechanism was largely identical to the 1311, but recording improvements allowed higher data density. The 2311 stored 7.25 million bytes on a single removable IBM 1316 disk pack (the same type used on the IBM 1311) consisting of six platters that rotated as a single unit. Each recording surface had 200 tracks plus 3 optional tracks which could be used as alternatives in case faulty tracks were discovered. Average seek time was 85 ms. Data transfer rate was 156 kB/s.
The 2311 had 10 individual R/W heads mounted on a common actuator which was moved in and out hydraulically and mechanically detented at the desired track before reading or writing occurred. The 2311 was organized into cylinders, tracks, and records. (A cylinder referred to all surfaces the same track on each of the 5 platters.) Record 0 was reserved for timing.
Because the 2311 was to be used with a wide variety of computers within the 360 product line, its electrical interconnection was standardized. This created an opportunity for other manufacturers to sell plug compatible disk drives for use with IBM computers and an entire industry was born.

IBM 2311
The IBM 2314 Disk Access Storage Facility was introduced on April 22, 1965, one year after the System/360 introduction. It was used with the System/360 and the System/370 lines. With Two Channel Switch feature it could interface with two 360/370 channels. The 2314 Disk access mechanism was similar to the 2311, but further recording improvements allowed higher data density. The 2314 stored 29,176,000 characters (200×20×7294 bytes per track) on a single removable IBM 2316 disk pack which was similar in design to the 1316 but was taller as a result of increasing the number of disks from six to eleven. The 2316 disk pack containing the eleven 14-inch diameter disks yielded 20 recording surfaces. The drive access consisted of 20 individual R/W heads mounted on a common actuator which was moved in and out hydraulically and mechanically detented at the desired track before reading or writing occurred. Each recording surface had 200 tracks. Access time was initially the same as the 2311, but later models were faster as a result of improvements made in the hydraulic actuator. Data transfer rate was doubled to 310 kB/s.
The original Model 1 consisted of the 2314 control unit, a 2312 single drive module, and two 2313 four drive modules for a total of 9 disk drives. Only eight drives of the nine were available to the user at any one time. The ninth drive was there for a spare for the user and could also be worked on 'offline' by a Field Engineer while the other drives were in use by the customer. Each of the nine drives were mounted in individual drawers that were unlatched and pulled out to access the Disk Pack. Because of their appearance they picked up the nickname of 'Pizza Ovens'
Other 2314 Models came later: 2314 Model A with combinations of one to nine drives. 2314 Model B with 2319 disk drives were available in three, six and nine drive models. A 2844 Control Unit could be added to the 2314 Control Unit which allowed two S/360 Channels simultaneous access to two separate disk drives in the Storage Facility.

IBM 2314/2319
The IBM 2310 Removable Cartridge Drive was introduced with the IBM 1130 in 1965. It could store 512,000 words (1,024,000 bytes) on an IBM 2315 cartridge. A single 14 inch oxide-coated aluminum disk spun in a plastic shell with openings for the read/write arm and two heads.

IBM 2310
The IBM 3330 Direct Access Storage Facility, code named Merlin, was introduced in June 1970 for use with the IBM System/370 and the IBM System 360/195. Its removable disk packs held 100 megabytes (the 1973 Model 11 featured IBM 3336 Disk Packs that held 200 megabytes). Access time was 30 millisecond and data transferred at 806 kB/s. A major advance introduced with the 3330 was the use of error correction, which made the drives more reliable and reduced costs because small imperfections in the disk surface could be tolerated. The circuitry could correct error bursts up to 11 bits long. The 3330 was withdrawn in 1983.

IBM 3330
The IBM 3340 Direct Access Storage Facility, code named Winchester, was introduced in March 1973 for use with IBM System/370. Its removable disk packs were sealed and included the head and arm assembly. There was no cover to remove during the insertion process. Access time was 25 millisecond and data transferred at 885 kB/s. Three versions of the removable IBM 3348 Data Module were sold, one with 35 megabyte capacity, another with 70 megabytes, the third also had 70 megabytes, but with 500 kilobytes under separate fixed heads for faster access. The 3340 also used error correction. It was withdrawn in 1984.
The Winchester code name is rumored to be after the famous 30-30 Winchester rifle. The rumor is that development engineers called the drive a 30-30 because it had two spindles holding 30 megabytes each and that the engineer in charge made the connection with the rifle. IBM notes the existence of this rumor but does not confirm it. The term Winchester or Winnie was used for hard disk drives in general for some time after the introduction of the 3340.

IBM 3340
The IBM 3350 Direct Access Storage Facility, code named Madrid, was introduced in 1975 for use with IBM System/370. Its non-removable disk packs were sealed and included the head and arm assembly. The 3350 disk geometry was 555 cylinders, 30 heads, and 19069 bytes per track which gave the Head Disk Assembly (HDA) a storage capacity of 317,498,850 bytes. Disk units were identified as A2, A2F, B2, B2F, C2, and C2F. Each unit contained two HDAs and they were installed in "strings" of units. An A2 or A2F unit was required and attached to a "control unit" such as the IBM 3880. After the A2 could be up to 3 B2 units or 2 B2s and a C2. The C2 unit could also be connected to a control unit and with it in place then two I/O operations could be executed on the string at the same time. The "x2F" unit was a normal x2 unit, but its two HDAs also had a "Fixed Head" area over the first 5 cylinders. This Fixed Head area was intended to be allocated to the HASP or JES2 checkpoint area and thus would greatly reduce head motion on the device. In the background of this 3350 photograph is an IBM 3066 console, used on the IBM 370/165 and 370/168 computers: [1]

Early IBM disk storage IBM 3350
IBM introduced the IBM 3370 Direct Access Storage Device in January 1979 for its for IBM 4331, 4341, and System/38 midrange computers. It has 7 fixed 14" disks, and each unit has a capacity of 571Mb. It uses thin-film head technology; research on that technology started at T.J. Watson laboratory in the late 1960's. [2]

IBM 3370
The IBM 3380 Direct Access Storage Device was introduced in June 1980. It used new film head technology and had a capacity of 2.52 gigabytes with a data transfer rate of 3 megabytes per second. Average access time was 16 ms. Purchase price at time of introduction ranged from $81,000 to $142,200. Due to problems encountered, the first units did not ship until October, 1981.[3]

IBM 3380
[ text still missing ]

IBM 3390
Another important IBM innovation was little noticed when it was introduced with the System/370 in 1971. IBM needed a way to load new microcode into the IBM System/370 Model 158 and developed the 33FD floppy disk for this purpose.
IBM's "first" floppies were 8 inches in diameter and held 80 Kilobytes of data. They were massively used starting in 1972 as data entry media ideally suited to replace 80-column punched cards, and card readers were in turn replaced by diskette readers. By 1978 most of IBM's and other manufacturers' punched-card, or "unit record equipment" such as punch machines, punched card verifiers, sorters, collating machines, card readers, etc., had been discarded, replaced by floppy diskette units, and in the process, saving each year millions of tons of cardboard paper worldwide. Floppy diskettes 5 1/4" and 3½" in diameter, having higher data densities and larger capacities, became important storage devices for the personal computer developed the late 1970s.

Disk storage in 2004

History of hard disks
List of IBM products#Electrical/electronic/magnetic/optical storage units

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Crowd simulation
Crowd simulation is the process of simulating the movement of a large number of objects or characters, now often appearing in 3D computer graphics for film.
The need for crowd simulation arises when a scene calls for more characters than can be practically animated using conventional systems, such as skeletons/bones.
Animators typically create a library of motions, either for the entire character or for individual body parts. To simplify processing, these animations are sometimes baked as morphs. Alternatively, the motions can be generated procedurally - i.e. choreographed automatically by software.
The actual movement and interactions of the crowd is typically done in one of two ways:
The most notable examples of AI simulation can be seen in New Line Cinema's The Lord of the Rings films, where AI armies of many thousands battle each other. The crowd simulation was done using Weta Digital's Massive software.
Crowd simulation can also refer to simulations based on group dynamics and crowd psychology, often in public safety planning. In this case, the focus is just the behavior of the crowd, and not the visual realism of the simulation.

Particle Motion: The characters are attached to point particles, which are then animated by simulating wind, gravity, attractions, and collisions. The particle method is usually inexpensive to implement, and can be done in most 3D software packages. However, the method is not very realistic because it is difficult to direct individual entities when necessary, and because motion is generally limited to a flat surface.
Crowd AI: The entities - also called agents - are given artificial intelligence, which guides the entities based on one or more functions, such as sight, hearing, basic emotion, energy level, aggressiveness level, etc.. The entities are given goals and then interact with each other as members of a real crowd would. They are often programmed to respond to changes in environment, enabling them to climb hills, jump over holes, scale ladders, etc. This system is much more realistic than particle motion, but is very expensive to program and implement.

Sunday, April 27, 2008

Gwen Renée Stefani (born October 3, 1969) (IPA pronunciation: [gwɛn stɛ'fɑn.ni] In 2003, she debuted her clothing line L.A.M.B. and expanded her collection with the 2005 Harajuku Lovers line. Drawing inspiration from Japanese culture and fashion, Stefani performs and makes public appearances with four back-up dancers known as the Harajuku Girls. She married British indie musician Gavin Rossdale in 2002, and the two have a son, Kingston, who was born in 2006.

Early life

Music career

Main article: No DoubtGwen Stefani 1986 – present: No Doubt

2004 – present: Solo career
Stefani's debut solo album Love. Angel. Music. Baby. was released in November 2004. The album features a large number of collaborations with producers and other artists, including Kanal, Linda Perry, OutKast's André 3000, and The Neptunes. Stefani created the album to modernize the music to which she listened when in high school, and L.A.M.B. takes influence from a variety of music styles of the 1980s and early 1990s such as New Wave, new jack swing, and electro.

Problems playing the files? See media help. 2004 – 2006: Love. Angel. Music. Baby.
Stefani's second solo album The Sweet Escape was released in December 2006. Stefani recollaborated with Kanal, Perry, and the Neptunes along with Akon and Tim Rice-Oxley. The album focuses more heavily on dance music for clubs than its predecessor. After "4 in the Morning" failed to match the success of Stefani's previous singles, "Now That You Got It" was released as the album's fourth single.

Problems playing the files? See media help. 2006 – present: The Sweet Escape
Stefani made most of the clothing that she wore on stage with No Doubt, resulting in increasingly eclectic combinations. Stylist Andrea Lieberman introduced her to haute couture clothing, which lead to Stefani launching a fashion line named L.A.M.B. in 2004.

Non-musical projects
Stefani had a crush on bandmate Tony Kanal when he joined No Doubt, but Kanal initially rejected her because her older brother was in the band and Kanal felt it was an unspoken rule that no one of the band date her. The two eventually began dating and were "inseparable" by the early 1990s.
Stefani was supossed to be on Bone Thugs-n-Harmony's Album Strength & Loyalty, the Track's name was "You&Me", but never made it to the album.

Personal life
Stefani is often identified by her unique appearance. She began wearing a bindi in the mid 1990s after attending several family gatherings for Kanal, who is of Indian heritage.

Harajuku Girls

Main article: Gwen Stefani discography Studio albums

2004: "What You Waiting For?"
2004: "Rich Girl" featuring Eve
2005: "Hollaback Girl"
2005: "Cool"
2005: "Luxurious" featuring Slim Thug
2006: "Crash"
2006: "Wind It Up"
2007: "The Sweet Escape" featuring Akon
2007: "4 in the Morning"
2007: "Now That You Got It" featuring Damian Marley
2007: "Early Winter"

Saturday, April 26, 2008

The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.
The first few decades of this century were characterized by a balance of power between the Greek Hellenistic kingdoms in the east, and the great mercantile power of Carthage in the west. This balance was shattered when conflict arose between Carthage and the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Empire was first humbled and then destroyed by the Romans in the first and second Punic wars. Following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean.
In the 3rd century BC the Xiong Nu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. The Warring States period in China drew to a close, with Qin Shihuang conquering other nation-states and establishing the Qin dynasty, the first empire of China. The Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula.


299 BC The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard plain, start the third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them.
298 BC The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the Battle of Camerinum, first battle of the Third Samnite War.
293 BC The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique.
Roman armies penetrate into the heart of the Samnite territory and then capture the Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus and Aufidena.
Agathocles, king of Syracuse, assists the Italian Greeks against the Bruttians and supported the Greeks against the Romans.
Ptolemy gives his stepdaughter Theoxena in marriage to Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse (in south-eastern Sicily).
Ptolemy finally brings the rebellious region of Cyrene under his control. He places the region under the rule of his stepson Magas.
Bindusara succeeds his father Chandragupta Maurya as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
Theater, Epidauros, is built with later additions. 290s BC

281 BC Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.
280 BC King Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy in an attempt to subjugate the Romans and bring Italy under a new empire ruled by himself.
280 BC Construction of the Colossus of Rhodes is completed 280s BC

279 BC Singidunum and Taurunum, today's Belgrade and Zemun, founded by Scordisci Celts.
275 BC: end of history of Babylon.
After failing to decisively defeat the Romans, Pyrrhus of Epirus withdraws from Italy.
Gallic migration to Macedon, Thrace and Galatia.
273 BC252 BC Ashoka the Great ruled the Mauryan Empire. 270s BC

264 BC First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic.
261 BC Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.
260 BC Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in China; a decisive Qin victory. 240s BC

230 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Han. 230s BC

225 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Wei.
223 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Chu.
222 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Yan and Zhao.
221 BC With the conquest of the State of Qi, Qin Shihuang unifies the whole of China into one empire that also included northern Vietnam, forming the Qin Dynasty. 220s BC

218 BC Second Punic War begins. Hannibal makes his famous Alpine crossing to invade Italy, the Roman heartland.
214 BC Qin Shi Huang of the Chinese Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great Wall of China. 210s BC

206 BC-202 BC Civil war of the Chu-Han contention in China after the fall of the Qin Dynasty.
202 BC Romans defeat Carthaginians, ending the Second Punic War. Carthage's territories are reduced to the city itself, and crippling reparations are demanded by Rome.
Indian traders regularly visited Arabia.
Scythians occupy Sogdiana, in modern-day Uzbekistan.
Han Dynasty of China was founded (202 BC220 AD).
The Pharos of Alexandria is built.
Appearance of the Hopewell culture in Ohio, USA.
Teotihuacán, Mexico begun. 200s BC

Mencius, Chinese philosopher and sage (371289 BC)
Euclid, geometer (c. 365275 BC)
Ashoka, Mauryan ruler of India (273 BC232 BC)
Archimedes of Syracuse, mathematician, physicist, and engineer (c. 287212 BC)
Eratosthenes (c. 276194 BC), Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer
Apollonius of Perga, mathematician (c. 262190 BC)
Qin Shi Huang, Chinese Emperor (259210 BC, reigned 246210 BC)
Emperor Gaozu of Han, founder of the Han Dynasty in China, (256 BC-195 BC, reigned 202 BC-195 BC)
Xiang Yu (232 BC-202 BC), Chinese rebel general against the Qin Dynasty and arch nemesis of Liu Bang in the Chu-Han contention.
Hannibal, military leader of Carthage (247182 BC)
the "second" Brennus, Gaulish chieftain, invades Macedonia in 279 BC
The Ptolemaic dynasty rules Egypt

  • Ptolemy I Soter (305 BC282 BC) and his wives Eurydice and
    Ptolemy II Philadelphos (284 BC246 BC) and his wives Arsinoe I and Arsinoe II Philadelphos
    Ptolemy III Euergetes I (246 BC222 BC) and his wife Berenice II
    Ptolemy IV Philopater (222 BC204 BC) and his wife Arsinoe III
    Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204 BC180 BC) and his wife Cleopatra I
    Appius Claudius Caecus, Aqua Appia, Via Appia, invented letter G
    Arcesilaus, founder of new Academy
    Manetho, wrote History of Egypt
    Xun Zi, founder of Legalism (philosophy)
    Zeno of Citium, founder of Stoicism
    Bai Qi, Chinese general
    Song Yu, Chinese poet Third century BCE Inventions, discoveries, introductions
    Much of what we know of this century comes down to us from the works of the Roman historian Polybius, whose main concern is the story of how Rome comes to dominate the known world.