Friday, May 2, 2008

Broom Hill (Greater Victoria)
Broom Hill is a rural neighbourhood in Sooke, British Columbia. Its residential subdivisions surround a hill of gabbro which rises to an elevation of 274 metres (899 feet). Above the subdivisions, most of the terrain has a forest cover dominated by Douglas-fir.

Thursday, May 1, 2008

Yala Province Geography

For more details on this topic, see South Thailand insurgency.Yala Province History
Yala is one of the four provinces of Thailand where the majority of the population are Muslim, making up 68.9% of the population. Also 66.1% of the population are Malay.

Yala is subdivided into 8 districts (Amphoe), which are further subdivided into 56 communes (tambon) and 341 villages (muban).

Mueang Yala
Bannang Sata
Than To
Krong Pinang

Wednesday, April 30, 2008

The invention of magnetic disk storage, pioneered by IBM in the 1950s, was a critical component of the computer revolution. This article surveys the major IBM computer disk drives introduced in the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s.
The basic mechanical arrangement of hard disk drives hasn't changed since the IBM 1301. Disk drive performance and characteristics are measured the same today as they were in the 1950s. This survey concludes with a modern (2004) PC hard drive for comparison. Few products in history have enjoyed such a spectacular decline in cost and size with such a stellar improvement in capacity.

IBM 350
The IBM 353 used on the IBM 7030, was similar to the IBM 1301, but much faster. It had a capacity of 2,097,152 (2

Early IBM disk storage IBM 353
The IBM 355 was announced on September 14, 1956 as an addition to the popular IBM 650. It used the same mechanism as the IBM 350 and stored 6 million 7-bit decimal digits. Data was transferred to and from the IBM 653 magnetic core memory, an IBM 650 option that stored just sixty 10-digit words, enough for a single sector of disk or tape data.

IBM 355
The IBM 1405 Disk Storage Unit was announced by 1961 and was designed for use with the IBM 1401 series medium scale business computers. The 1405 stored 10 million characters on a single module. Each module had 25 large disks, yielding 50 recording surfaces. The disks spun at 1200 RPM. The Model 1 had one module, the Model 2 had two modules, stacked vertically. Each recording surface had 200 tracks and 5 sectors per track. Data was read or recorded at 22,500 characters per second. A single arm moved in and out and up and down. Access time ranged from 100 to 800 milliseconds (Model 2).

IBM 1301
The IBM 1302 Disk Storage Unit was introduced in September 1963. Improved recording quadrupled its capacity over that of the 1301, to 117 million 6-bit characters per module. Average access time was 165 ms and data could be transferred at 180 K characters/second, more than double the speed of the 1301. A second arm accessed a separate group of 250 tracks. As with the 1301, there was a Model 2 with twice the capacity. The IBM 1302 Model 1 leased for $5,600 per month or could be purchased for $252,000. Prices for the Model 2 were $7,900 per month or $355,500 to purchase. The IBM 7631 controller cost an additional $1,185 per month or $56,000 to purchase. The 1302 was withdrawn in February 1965.

IBM 1302
The IBM 1311 Disk Storage Drive was announced on October 11, 1962 and was designed for use with several medium-scale business and scientific computers. The 1311 was about the size and shape of a top-loading washing machine and stored 2 million characters on a removable IBM 1316 disk pack. Each disk pack was 4 inches high, weighed 10 pounds (4.5 kg) and contained six 14-inch diameter disks, yielding 10 recording surfaces (the outer surfaces were not used). The 10 individual R/W heads were mounted on a common actuator which was moved in and out hydraulically and mechanically detented at the desired track before reading or writing occurred. The disks spun at 1500 RPM. Each recording surface had 100 tracks with 20 sectors per track. Each sector stored 100 characters. Seven models of the 1311 were introduced during the 1960s. They were withdrawn during the early 1970s.
Models of the 1311 disk drive
The optional special features were
Drive 1 (the master drive: models 1, 3, 4, and 5) was about a foot wider than the other drives (the slave drives: model 2), to contain extra power supplies and the control logic.
The IBM 1316 Disk Packs were covered with a clear plastic shell and a bottom cover when not in use. A lifting handle in the top center of the cover was rotated to release the bottom cover. Then the top of the 1311 drive was opened and the plastic shell was lowered into the disk drive opening (assuming it was empty). The handle was turned again to lock the disks in place and release the plastic shell, which was then removed and the drive cover closed. The process was reversed to remove a disk pack.

Must be drive 1 on an IBM 1440, IBM 1460, or IBM 1240 system. Contains the controller and can control up to 4 – Model 2 drives. Introduced October 11, 1962. Withdrawn February 8, 1971.
Slave drive. Could have any special feature incorporated that the master drive (drive 1) had incorporated. Introduced October 11, 1962. Withdrawn January 6, 1975.
Must be drive 1 on an IBM 1620 or IBM 1710 system. Contains the controller and can control up to 3 – Model 2 drives. Did not support any special features. Introduced October 11, 1962. Withdrawn May 12, 1971.
Must be drive 1 on an IBM 1401 system. Contains the controller and can control up to 4 – Model 2 drives. Introduced October 11, 1962. Withdrawn February 8, 1971.
Must be drive 1 on an IBM 1410, IBM 7010, or IBM 7740 system. Contains the controller and can control up to 4 – Model 2 drives. Direct Seek comes standard on this model. Introduced January 7, 1963. Withdrawn May 12, 1971.
No information available, probably a master drive (drive 1). Introduced March 5, 1968. Withdrawn February 2, 1971.
No information available, probably a master drive (drive 1). Introduced March 5, 1968. Withdrawn February 2, 1971.
Direct Seek: Without this option every seek returned to track zero first.
Scan Disk: Automatic rapid search for identifier or condition.
Seek Overlap: Allowed a seek to overlap ONE read or write and any number of other seeks.
Track Record: Increased the capacity of the disk by writing ONE large record per track instead of using sectors. IBM 1311
The IBM 2311 Direct Access Storage Facility was introduced in 1964 for use throughout the System/360 series. It was also available on the IBM 1130. The 2311 mechanism was largely identical to the 1311, but recording improvements allowed higher data density. The 2311 stored 7.25 million bytes on a single removable IBM 1316 disk pack (the same type used on the IBM 1311) consisting of six platters that rotated as a single unit. Each recording surface had 200 tracks plus 3 optional tracks which could be used as alternatives in case faulty tracks were discovered. Average seek time was 85 ms. Data transfer rate was 156 kB/s.
The 2311 had 10 individual R/W heads mounted on a common actuator which was moved in and out hydraulically and mechanically detented at the desired track before reading or writing occurred. The 2311 was organized into cylinders, tracks, and records. (A cylinder referred to all surfaces the same track on each of the 5 platters.) Record 0 was reserved for timing.
Because the 2311 was to be used with a wide variety of computers within the 360 product line, its electrical interconnection was standardized. This created an opportunity for other manufacturers to sell plug compatible disk drives for use with IBM computers and an entire industry was born.

IBM 2311
The IBM 2314 Disk Access Storage Facility was introduced on April 22, 1965, one year after the System/360 introduction. It was used with the System/360 and the System/370 lines. With Two Channel Switch feature it could interface with two 360/370 channels. The 2314 Disk access mechanism was similar to the 2311, but further recording improvements allowed higher data density. The 2314 stored 29,176,000 characters (200×20×7294 bytes per track) on a single removable IBM 2316 disk pack which was similar in design to the 1316 but was taller as a result of increasing the number of disks from six to eleven. The 2316 disk pack containing the eleven 14-inch diameter disks yielded 20 recording surfaces. The drive access consisted of 20 individual R/W heads mounted on a common actuator which was moved in and out hydraulically and mechanically detented at the desired track before reading or writing occurred. Each recording surface had 200 tracks. Access time was initially the same as the 2311, but later models were faster as a result of improvements made in the hydraulic actuator. Data transfer rate was doubled to 310 kB/s.
The original Model 1 consisted of the 2314 control unit, a 2312 single drive module, and two 2313 four drive modules for a total of 9 disk drives. Only eight drives of the nine were available to the user at any one time. The ninth drive was there for a spare for the user and could also be worked on 'offline' by a Field Engineer while the other drives were in use by the customer. Each of the nine drives were mounted in individual drawers that were unlatched and pulled out to access the Disk Pack. Because of their appearance they picked up the nickname of 'Pizza Ovens'
Other 2314 Models came later: 2314 Model A with combinations of one to nine drives. 2314 Model B with 2319 disk drives were available in three, six and nine drive models. A 2844 Control Unit could be added to the 2314 Control Unit which allowed two S/360 Channels simultaneous access to two separate disk drives in the Storage Facility.

IBM 2314/2319
The IBM 2310 Removable Cartridge Drive was introduced with the IBM 1130 in 1965. It could store 512,000 words (1,024,000 bytes) on an IBM 2315 cartridge. A single 14 inch oxide-coated aluminum disk spun in a plastic shell with openings for the read/write arm and two heads.

IBM 2310
The IBM 3330 Direct Access Storage Facility, code named Merlin, was introduced in June 1970 for use with the IBM System/370 and the IBM System 360/195. Its removable disk packs held 100 megabytes (the 1973 Model 11 featured IBM 3336 Disk Packs that held 200 megabytes). Access time was 30 millisecond and data transferred at 806 kB/s. A major advance introduced with the 3330 was the use of error correction, which made the drives more reliable and reduced costs because small imperfections in the disk surface could be tolerated. The circuitry could correct error bursts up to 11 bits long. The 3330 was withdrawn in 1983.

IBM 3330
The IBM 3340 Direct Access Storage Facility, code named Winchester, was introduced in March 1973 for use with IBM System/370. Its removable disk packs were sealed and included the head and arm assembly. There was no cover to remove during the insertion process. Access time was 25 millisecond and data transferred at 885 kB/s. Three versions of the removable IBM 3348 Data Module were sold, one with 35 megabyte capacity, another with 70 megabytes, the third also had 70 megabytes, but with 500 kilobytes under separate fixed heads for faster access. The 3340 also used error correction. It was withdrawn in 1984.
The Winchester code name is rumored to be after the famous 30-30 Winchester rifle. The rumor is that development engineers called the drive a 30-30 because it had two spindles holding 30 megabytes each and that the engineer in charge made the connection with the rifle. IBM notes the existence of this rumor but does not confirm it. The term Winchester or Winnie was used for hard disk drives in general for some time after the introduction of the 3340.

IBM 3340
The IBM 3350 Direct Access Storage Facility, code named Madrid, was introduced in 1975 for use with IBM System/370. Its non-removable disk packs were sealed and included the head and arm assembly. The 3350 disk geometry was 555 cylinders, 30 heads, and 19069 bytes per track which gave the Head Disk Assembly (HDA) a storage capacity of 317,498,850 bytes. Disk units were identified as A2, A2F, B2, B2F, C2, and C2F. Each unit contained two HDAs and they were installed in "strings" of units. An A2 or A2F unit was required and attached to a "control unit" such as the IBM 3880. After the A2 could be up to 3 B2 units or 2 B2s and a C2. The C2 unit could also be connected to a control unit and with it in place then two I/O operations could be executed on the string at the same time. The "x2F" unit was a normal x2 unit, but its two HDAs also had a "Fixed Head" area over the first 5 cylinders. This Fixed Head area was intended to be allocated to the HASP or JES2 checkpoint area and thus would greatly reduce head motion on the device. In the background of this 3350 photograph is an IBM 3066 console, used on the IBM 370/165 and 370/168 computers: [1]

Early IBM disk storage IBM 3350
IBM introduced the IBM 3370 Direct Access Storage Device in January 1979 for its for IBM 4331, 4341, and System/38 midrange computers. It has 7 fixed 14" disks, and each unit has a capacity of 571Mb. It uses thin-film head technology; research on that technology started at T.J. Watson laboratory in the late 1960's. [2]

IBM 3370
The IBM 3380 Direct Access Storage Device was introduced in June 1980. It used new film head technology and had a capacity of 2.52 gigabytes with a data transfer rate of 3 megabytes per second. Average access time was 16 ms. Purchase price at time of introduction ranged from $81,000 to $142,200. Due to problems encountered, the first units did not ship until October, 1981.[3]

IBM 3380
[ text still missing ]

IBM 3390
Another important IBM innovation was little noticed when it was introduced with the System/370 in 1971. IBM needed a way to load new microcode into the IBM System/370 Model 158 and developed the 33FD floppy disk for this purpose.
IBM's "first" floppies were 8 inches in diameter and held 80 Kilobytes of data. They were massively used starting in 1972 as data entry media ideally suited to replace 80-column punched cards, and card readers were in turn replaced by diskette readers. By 1978 most of IBM's and other manufacturers' punched-card, or "unit record equipment" such as punch machines, punched card verifiers, sorters, collating machines, card readers, etc., had been discarded, replaced by floppy diskette units, and in the process, saving each year millions of tons of cardboard paper worldwide. Floppy diskettes 5 1/4" and 3½" in diameter, having higher data densities and larger capacities, became important storage devices for the personal computer developed the late 1970s.

Disk storage in 2004

History of hard disks
List of IBM products#Electrical/electronic/magnetic/optical storage units

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Crowd simulation
Crowd simulation is the process of simulating the movement of a large number of objects or characters, now often appearing in 3D computer graphics for film.
The need for crowd simulation arises when a scene calls for more characters than can be practically animated using conventional systems, such as skeletons/bones.
Animators typically create a library of motions, either for the entire character or for individual body parts. To simplify processing, these animations are sometimes baked as morphs. Alternatively, the motions can be generated procedurally - i.e. choreographed automatically by software.
The actual movement and interactions of the crowd is typically done in one of two ways:
The most notable examples of AI simulation can be seen in New Line Cinema's The Lord of the Rings films, where AI armies of many thousands battle each other. The crowd simulation was done using Weta Digital's Massive software.
Crowd simulation can also refer to simulations based on group dynamics and crowd psychology, often in public safety planning. In this case, the focus is just the behavior of the crowd, and not the visual realism of the simulation.

Particle Motion: The characters are attached to point particles, which are then animated by simulating wind, gravity, attractions, and collisions. The particle method is usually inexpensive to implement, and can be done in most 3D software packages. However, the method is not very realistic because it is difficult to direct individual entities when necessary, and because motion is generally limited to a flat surface.
Crowd AI: The entities - also called agents - are given artificial intelligence, which guides the entities based on one or more functions, such as sight, hearing, basic emotion, energy level, aggressiveness level, etc.. The entities are given goals and then interact with each other as members of a real crowd would. They are often programmed to respond to changes in environment, enabling them to climb hills, jump over holes, scale ladders, etc. This system is much more realistic than particle motion, but is very expensive to program and implement.

Sunday, April 27, 2008

Gwen Renée Stefani (born October 3, 1969) (IPA pronunciation: [gwɛn stɛ'fɑ] In 2003, she debuted her clothing line L.A.M.B. and expanded her collection with the 2005 Harajuku Lovers line. Drawing inspiration from Japanese culture and fashion, Stefani performs and makes public appearances with four back-up dancers known as the Harajuku Girls. She married British indie musician Gavin Rossdale in 2002, and the two have a son, Kingston, who was born in 2006.

Early life

Music career

Main article: No DoubtGwen Stefani 1986 – present: No Doubt

2004 – present: Solo career
Stefani's debut solo album Love. Angel. Music. Baby. was released in November 2004. The album features a large number of collaborations with producers and other artists, including Kanal, Linda Perry, OutKast's André 3000, and The Neptunes. Stefani created the album to modernize the music to which she listened when in high school, and L.A.M.B. takes influence from a variety of music styles of the 1980s and early 1990s such as New Wave, new jack swing, and electro.

Problems playing the files? See media help. 2004 – 2006: Love. Angel. Music. Baby.
Stefani's second solo album The Sweet Escape was released in December 2006. Stefani recollaborated with Kanal, Perry, and the Neptunes along with Akon and Tim Rice-Oxley. The album focuses more heavily on dance music for clubs than its predecessor. After "4 in the Morning" failed to match the success of Stefani's previous singles, "Now That You Got It" was released as the album's fourth single.

Problems playing the files? See media help. 2006 – present: The Sweet Escape
Stefani made most of the clothing that she wore on stage with No Doubt, resulting in increasingly eclectic combinations. Stylist Andrea Lieberman introduced her to haute couture clothing, which lead to Stefani launching a fashion line named L.A.M.B. in 2004.

Non-musical projects
Stefani had a crush on bandmate Tony Kanal when he joined No Doubt, but Kanal initially rejected her because her older brother was in the band and Kanal felt it was an unspoken rule that no one of the band date her. The two eventually began dating and were "inseparable" by the early 1990s.
Stefani was supossed to be on Bone Thugs-n-Harmony's Album Strength & Loyalty, the Track's name was "You&Me", but never made it to the album.

Personal life
Stefani is often identified by her unique appearance. She began wearing a bindi in the mid 1990s after attending several family gatherings for Kanal, who is of Indian heritage.

Harajuku Girls

Main article: Gwen Stefani discography Studio albums

2004: "What You Waiting For?"
2004: "Rich Girl" featuring Eve
2005: "Hollaback Girl"
2005: "Cool"
2005: "Luxurious" featuring Slim Thug
2006: "Crash"
2006: "Wind It Up"
2007: "The Sweet Escape" featuring Akon
2007: "4 in the Morning"
2007: "Now That You Got It" featuring Damian Marley
2007: "Early Winter"

Saturday, April 26, 2008

The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.
The first few decades of this century were characterized by a balance of power between the Greek Hellenistic kingdoms in the east, and the great mercantile power of Carthage in the west. This balance was shattered when conflict arose between Carthage and the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Empire was first humbled and then destroyed by the Romans in the first and second Punic wars. Following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean.
In the 3rd century BC the Xiong Nu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. The Warring States period in China drew to a close, with Qin Shihuang conquering other nation-states and establishing the Qin dynasty, the first empire of China. The Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula.


299 BC The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard plain, start the third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them.
298 BC The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the Battle of Camerinum, first battle of the Third Samnite War.
293 BC The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique.
Roman armies penetrate into the heart of the Samnite territory and then capture the Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus and Aufidena.
Agathocles, king of Syracuse, assists the Italian Greeks against the Bruttians and supported the Greeks against the Romans.
Ptolemy gives his stepdaughter Theoxena in marriage to Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse (in south-eastern Sicily).
Ptolemy finally brings the rebellious region of Cyrene under his control. He places the region under the rule of his stepson Magas.
Bindusara succeeds his father Chandragupta Maurya as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
Theater, Epidauros, is built with later additions. 290s BC

281 BC Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.
280 BC King Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy in an attempt to subjugate the Romans and bring Italy under a new empire ruled by himself.
280 BC Construction of the Colossus of Rhodes is completed 280s BC

279 BC Singidunum and Taurunum, today's Belgrade and Zemun, founded by Scordisci Celts.
275 BC: end of history of Babylon.
After failing to decisively defeat the Romans, Pyrrhus of Epirus withdraws from Italy.
Gallic migration to Macedon, Thrace and Galatia.
273 BC252 BC Ashoka the Great ruled the Mauryan Empire. 270s BC

264 BC First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic.
261 BC Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.
260 BC Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in China; a decisive Qin victory. 240s BC

230 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Han. 230s BC

225 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Wei.
223 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Chu.
222 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Yan and Zhao.
221 BC With the conquest of the State of Qi, Qin Shihuang unifies the whole of China into one empire that also included northern Vietnam, forming the Qin Dynasty. 220s BC

218 BC Second Punic War begins. Hannibal makes his famous Alpine crossing to invade Italy, the Roman heartland.
214 BC Qin Shi Huang of the Chinese Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great Wall of China. 210s BC

206 BC-202 BC Civil war of the Chu-Han contention in China after the fall of the Qin Dynasty.
202 BC Romans defeat Carthaginians, ending the Second Punic War. Carthage's territories are reduced to the city itself, and crippling reparations are demanded by Rome.
Indian traders regularly visited Arabia.
Scythians occupy Sogdiana, in modern-day Uzbekistan.
Han Dynasty of China was founded (202 BC220 AD).
The Pharos of Alexandria is built.
Appearance of the Hopewell culture in Ohio, USA.
Teotihuacán, Mexico begun. 200s BC

Mencius, Chinese philosopher and sage (371289 BC)
Euclid, geometer (c. 365275 BC)
Ashoka, Mauryan ruler of India (273 BC232 BC)
Archimedes of Syracuse, mathematician, physicist, and engineer (c. 287212 BC)
Eratosthenes (c. 276194 BC), Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer
Apollonius of Perga, mathematician (c. 262190 BC)
Qin Shi Huang, Chinese Emperor (259210 BC, reigned 246210 BC)
Emperor Gaozu of Han, founder of the Han Dynasty in China, (256 BC-195 BC, reigned 202 BC-195 BC)
Xiang Yu (232 BC-202 BC), Chinese rebel general against the Qin Dynasty and arch nemesis of Liu Bang in the Chu-Han contention.
Hannibal, military leader of Carthage (247182 BC)
the "second" Brennus, Gaulish chieftain, invades Macedonia in 279 BC
The Ptolemaic dynasty rules Egypt

  • Ptolemy I Soter (305 BC282 BC) and his wives Eurydice and
    Ptolemy II Philadelphos (284 BC246 BC) and his wives Arsinoe I and Arsinoe II Philadelphos
    Ptolemy III Euergetes I (246 BC222 BC) and his wife Berenice II
    Ptolemy IV Philopater (222 BC204 BC) and his wife Arsinoe III
    Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204 BC180 BC) and his wife Cleopatra I
    Appius Claudius Caecus, Aqua Appia, Via Appia, invented letter G
    Arcesilaus, founder of new Academy
    Manetho, wrote History of Egypt
    Xun Zi, founder of Legalism (philosophy)
    Zeno of Citium, founder of Stoicism
    Bai Qi, Chinese general
    Song Yu, Chinese poet Third century BCE Inventions, discoveries, introductions
    Much of what we know of this century comes down to us from the works of the Roman historian Polybius, whose main concern is the story of how Rome comes to dominate the known world.

Friday, April 25, 2008

Sullivan County, Tennessee
Sullivan County is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee. As of 2000, the population was 153,048. Its county seat is Blountville.

Sullivan County, Tennessee Geography

Washington County, Virginia & Bristol, Virginia (northeast)
Johnson County (east)
Carter County (southeast)
Washington County (southwest)
Hawkins County (west)
Scott County, Virginia (northwest)

Thursday, April 24, 2008

State of Arkansas
Thomas Carmichael Hindman, Jr. (January 28, 1828September 27, 1868) was a lawyer, United States Representative from the 1st Congressional District of Arkansas, and a Major General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.

Family background
The elder Hindman frequently made business trips to Alabama, and even moved the family to Jacksonville, Alabama after buying several lots of land there. Hindman took advantage of the many local business opportunities and was able to provide his family with whatever they needed. Hindman Sr. gained a reputation for honesty with his business associates, which included Cherokee Indian tribes in the area.

Thomas C. Hindman Early life
Soon, the United States Army engaged in fighting at the US-Mexico border. After skirmishes along the Rio Grande between Mexican forces and American forces led by General Zachary Taylor, Congress approved a declaration of war and President James K. Polk called upon the states to draw up 50,000 volunteers to be alongside the army. Mississippi newspapers encouraged state residents to join the action. One newspaper, the Holly Springs Guard, proclaimed, "To arms! To arms! Ye brave! Th' avenging sword unsheathe: March on, march on, all hearts resolved, on [to] victory or death."

Participation in the Mexican-American War
After returning back to Ripley, Hindman continued his law studies under Orlando Davis. A year after the war ended Hindman's brother, Robert, engaged in a fight with William Falkner because he had thought Falkner tried to block his membership into the Ripley section of the Sons of Temperance. Robert Hindman tried to defend himself, but his gun failed to fire, and Falkner then fatally stabbed him. Falkner was tried for murder, but was acquitted by the jury ruling that he was acting in self-defense.

Back in Mississippi
By 1854, Hindman realized that he had little room to maneuver in the crowded Mississippi political arena. Looking across the Mississippi River, Hindman observed that the young and turbulent State of Arkansas was wide open for a well educated and ambitious politician. Hindman left Mississippi politics when he moved to Helena, Arkansas on March 18, 1854.

Move to Arkansas
During his term, Hindman tried to bring unity to the state's Democratic Party. He turned on the political hierarchy in the state, and political warfare divided the Democratic Party in Arkansas, with the pro-Hindman forces on one side and the forces of the political "family" that had ruled Arkansas since territorial days on the other. He labeled the actions of the "family" as "the most concentrated wrath of the small managers of the caucus and of certain outside high-priests who manage[d] them."

Bringing down Arkansas's political "family"
As the American Civil War approached, Hindman was an ardent voice for secession and was essentially Arkansas's most prominent Fire-Eater. When Arkansas voted 65-5 to secede from the Union in May of 1861, Hindman was present in the gallery of the convention.

The Civil War
Hindman's edicts, however, raised the ire of the local citizenry and they, and Hindman's political enemies, demanded that the Confederate leaders in Richmond replace him. By August of 1862, the authorities in Richmond decided to replace him with the well-meaning but incompetent Theophilus H. Holmes.

In charge of "Hindman's Legion"
Hindman joined Confederate refugees in the Mexican town of Carolota, where he engaged in coffee planting and attempted to practice law. By April 1867, he was confident enough in the situation at home to return to Arkansas and apply to President Andrew Johnson for a pardon.

See also

Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Linden is a city in southeastern Union County, New Jersey, United States. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area, being about 13 miles southwest of Manhattan, and bordering Staten Island, a borough of New York City.
Linden was originally formed as a township on March 4, 1861, from portions of Elizabeth, Rahway and Union Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Cranford (March 14, 1871), Linden Borough (March 30, 1882) and Roselle (December 20, 1894). Linden was incorporated as a city by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 1, 1925, replacing both Linden Township and Linden Borough (which had been formed in 1882 from the township), based on the results of a referendum held on November 8, 1923.

As of the census of 2000, there were 39,394 people, 15,052 households, and 10,084 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,407.0/km² (3,645.5/mi²). There were 15,567 housing units at an average density of 556.0/km² (1,440.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 66.08% White, 22.80% African American, 0.14% Native American, 2.35% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.88% from other races, and 3.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.40% of the population.
There were 15,052 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 27.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.21.
In the city the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, and 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $46,345, and the median income for a family was $54,903. Males had a median income of $39,457 versus $30,395 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,314. About 5.0% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.

Linden, New JerseyLinden, New Jersey Demographics

The Mayor of Linden is Richard J. Gerbounka. Gerbounka, who served twelve years on the City Council and ran an independent, defeated long-time mayor John T. Gregorio by an unofficial vote of 4,786 to 4,717. City Council President Robert Bunk was re-elected unopposed. Democrat Nominee Christopher J. Kolibas defeated independent Pat Hero in the 1st Ward race to replace retiring incumbent Edwin Schulhafer. Incumbent independent Robert Frazier was re-elected in the 9th Ward.
Members of the City Council are:

Council President - Robert F. Bunk
First Ward - Christopher Kolibas
Second Ward - Richard Koziol
Third Ward - Thomas R. Boland
Fourth Ward - Derek Armstead
Fifth Ward - Gene Davis
Sixth Ward - Charles J. Crane
Seventh Ward - Ralph Strano
Eighth Ward - Michele Yamakaitis
Ninth Ward - Robert Frazier
Tenth Ward - Mary Ann Dorin Local government
Linden is split between the Seventh, Tenth and Thirteenth Congressional Districts and is part of New Jersey's 22nd Legislative District.
New Jersey's Seventh Congressional District, covering portions of Hunterdon County, Middlesex County, Somerset County and Union County, is represented by Mike Ferguson (R). New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District, covering portions of Essex County, Hudson County, and Union County, is represented by Donald M. Payne (D, Newark). New Jersey's Thirteenth Congressional District, covering portions of Essex, Hudson, Middlesex, and Union Counties, is now represented by Albio Sires (D, West New York), who won a special election held on November 7, 2006 to fill the vacancy the had existed since January 16, 2006. The seat had been represented by Bob Menendez (D), who was appointed to the United States Senate to fill the seat vacated by Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine. New Jersey is represented in the Senate by Frank Lautenberg (D, Cliffside Park) and Bob Menendez (D, Hoboken).
The 22nd legislative district of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Nicholas Scutari (D, Linden) and in the Assembly by Jerry Green (D, Plainfield) and Linda Stender (D, Scotch Plains). The Governor of New Jersey is Jon Corzine (D, Hoboken).
Union County is governed by a nine-member Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of the January 2007 reorganization, Union County's Freeholders are Freeholder Chairwoman Bette Jane Kowalski, Freeholder Vice Chairman Angel G. Estrada, Chester Holmes, Adrian O. Mapp, Alexander Mirabella, Rick Proctor, Deborah P. Scanlon, Daniel P. Sullivan and Nancy Ward.

Federal, state and county representation
Union County Freeholders meet publicly on a monthly basis. Citizens have the ability to provide feedback and comment on issues that concern them. A sample Freeholder meeting held in September 2003 can be viewed by clicking:

Union County, NJ Freeholder Meeting -- 25 September 2003 Union County Freeholder Meetings

Public schools

Saints Mary and Elizabeth Academy, Catholic school, Pre-K through 8th grade
Victory Christian Academy, Pre-K through 12th grade Private schools

Linden is served by U.S. Route 1/9 and Route 27. It is also the western terminus of Interstate 278, which travels through all five boroughs of New York City.
The Garden State Parkway and the New Jersey Turnpike are located less than a mile west and east of the city limits, respectively.

Local public transportation is provided by New Jersey Transit with bus service to Elizabeth, Perth Amboy and Newark.
New Jersey Transit buses 112 and 115 provide local service and interstate service to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan.
Linden Train station is on the NJ Transit's North Jersey Coast Line and the Northeast Corridor Line.

Public Transportation
Linden Airport is a small general aviation facility located on the eastern side of the city along U.S. Route 1/9.
Newark Liberty International Airport is approximately 15 minutes away.


Carolyn Dorin-Ballard, professional bowler.

Tuesday, April 22, 2008

Kenwood is an unincorporated census-designated place in Sycamore Township, Hamilton County, Ohio, United States. The population was 7,423 at the 2000 census.

Kenwood, Ohio Geography
Kenwood is located at 39°12′21″N, 84°22′33″W (39.205912, -84.375745).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the community has a total area of 2.3 square miles (6.0 km²), all of it land.

Monday, April 21, 2008

St Cuthbert Without The parish of St Cuthbert Without or simply St Cuthbert is within the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England.
The parish lies immediately to the south of Carlisle itself and comprises the following settlements - Blackwell, Durdar, Carleton, Brisco and Wreay (the first three are usually regarded as outlying parts of Carlisle, although were not part of the former county borough of Carlisle). According to the 2001 census it had a population of 2,043.
The civil parish was formed in 1866 and has seen various boundary changes during its existence, mostly due to the expansion of Carlisle, although the former separate parish of Wreay was absorbed in 1934.
The parish is named after St Cuthbert's Church in Carlisle city centre. The "Without" part of the name means this was the part of the ecclesiastical parish of St Cuthbert's that was outside the city boundary or walls. The original civil parish of Carlisle St Cuthbert was split in 1866 to form St Cuthbert Without and St Cuthbert Within - the latter of which became part of a merged Carlisle civil parish in 1904.
At one time the parish included the modern Carlisle suburbs and districts of Botchergate, St Nicholas, Currock, Upperby and Harraby.
The M6, A6 and West Coast main railway line all run through the parish. The A6 meets the M6 at junction 42 (the Golden Fleece Roundabout) in Carleton. At different times there have been railway stations at Wreay and Brisco.
The main river in the parish is the River Petterill.
Carlisle Racecourse is situated at Blackwell.

Sunday, April 20, 2008

Baryonic matter is matter composed mostly of baryons (by mass), which includes atoms of any sort (and thus includes nearly all matter that we may encounter or experience in everyday life, including our bodies). Non-baryonic matter is the fundamental antithesis of such matter, being any sort of matter that is not primarily composed of baryons. This might include such ordinary matter as neutrinos or free electrons; however, it may also include exotic species of non-baryonic dark matter, such as supersymmetric particles, axions or black holes. The distinction between baryonic and non-baryonic matter is important in cosmology, because Big Bang nucleosynthesis models set tight constraints on the amount of baryonic matter present in the early universe.
The very existence of baryons is also a significant issue in cosmology, since we have assumed that the Big Bang produced a state with equal amounts of baryons and anti-baryons. The process by which baryons come to outnumber their antiparticles is called baryogenesis (in contrast to a process by which leptons account for the predominance of matter over antimatter, leptogenesis).

Baryonic matter

List of baryons
Baryon number
Particle physics
List of particles
Proton decay Baryon Baryons in media

Saturday, April 19, 2008

Until 966 966–1385 1385–1569 1569–1795 1795–1918 1918–1939 1939–1945 1945–1989 1989–present
Culture Demography (Jews) Economics Politics (Monarchs and Presidents) Military (Wars) Territorial changes (WWII)
The Jagiellon Era 1385-1569, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jogaila. The partnership proved profitable for the Poles and Lithuanians, who played a dominant role in one of the most powerful empires in Europe for the next three centuries.

The Polish-Lithuanian Union
The Jagiellons never recovered their hegemony over Central Europe, and the ascendancy of the Ottomans foreshadowed the eventual subjection of the entire region to foreign rule; but the half century that followed the Battle of Mohács marked an era of stability, affluence, and cultural advancement unmatched in national history and widely regarded by Poles as their country's golden age.

The "Golden Age" of the Sixteenth Century
The Teutonic Knights had been reduced to vassalage, and despite the now persistent threats posed by the Turks and an emerging Russian colossus, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania managed to defend its status as one of the largest and most prominent states of Europe. The wars and diplomacy of the century yielded no dramatic expansion but shielded the country from significant disturbance and permitted significant internal development. An "Eternal Peace" concluded with the Ottoman Turks in 1533 lessened but did not remove the threat of invasion from that quarter.
A lucrative agricultural export market was the foundation for the state wealth. A population boom in the Western Europe prompted an increased demand for foodstuffs; the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth became Europe's foremost supplier of grain, which was shipped abroad from the Baltic seaport of Gdansk. Aside from swelling Polish coffers, the prosperous grain trade supported other notable aspects of national development. It reinforced the preeminence of the landowning nobility that received its profits, and it helped to preserve a traditionally rural society and economy at a time when Western Europe had begun moving toward urbanization and capitalism.

Lithuania and Poland as European powers
In other respects as well, the distinctive features of Jagiellonian Poland ran against the historical trends of early modern Europe. Not the least of those features was its singular governmental structure and practice. In an era that favored the steady accumulation of power within the hands of European monarchs, Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania developed a markedly decentralized system dominated by a landed aristocracy that kept royal authority firmly in check. The Polish nobility, or szlachta, enjoyed the considerable benefits of landownership and control over the labor of the peasantry. Nobles were not the masters of life and death of the peasantry, but peasants could not leave the village without permission of village' s noble owner. The szlachta included 7 to 10 percent of the population, making it a very large noble class by European standards. The nobility manifested an impressive group solidarity in spite of great individual differences in wealth and standing. Over time, the gentry introduced a series of royal concessions and guarantees that vested the noble parliament, or Sejm, with decisive control over most aspects of statecraft, including exclusive rights to the making of laws.
In 1505 Sejm concluded that no new law could be established without the agreement of the nobility (the Nihil Novi act). King Alexander Jagiellon was forced to agree to this settlement. The Sejm operated on the principle of unanimous consent, regarding each noble as irreducibly sovereign. In a further safeguard of minority rights, Polish usage sanctioned the right of a group of gentry to form a confederation, which in effect constituted an uprising aimed at redress of grievances. The nobility also possessed the crucial right to elect the monarch, although the Jagiellons were in practice a hereditary ruling house in all but the formal sense. In fact, Jagiellons had to give privileges to the nobles to encourage them to elect their sons to be the successors. Those privileges reduced king's power. King Sigismund II Augustus was the last of Jagiellon dynasty; he had no sons. The prestige of the Jagiellons and the certainty of their succession supplied an element of cohesion that tempered the disruptive forces built into the state system.
In retrospect historians frequently have derided the idiosyncratic, delicate governmental mechanism of Poland and Lithuania as a recipe for anarchy. Although its eventual breakdown contributed greatly to the loss of independence in the eighteenth century, the system worked reasonably well for 200 years while fostering a spirit of civic liberality unmatched in the Europe of its day. The host of legal protections that the nobility enacted for itself prefigured the rights generally accorded the citizens of modern democracies, and the memory of the "golden freedoms" of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is an important part of the Poles' present-day sense of their tradition of liberty. On the other hand, the exclusion of the lower nobility from most of those protections caused serious resentment among that largely impoverished class, and the aristocracy passed laws in the early sixteenth century that made the peasants virtual slaves to the flourishing agricultural enterprises.

History of Poland (1385-1569) The Polish Renaissance
The population of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was not overwhelmingly Catholic or Polish. This circumstance resulted from the Poland's confederation with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, where ethnic Poles were a distinct minority. In those days, to be Polish was much less an indication of ethnicity than of rank; it was a designation largely reserved for the landed noble class, which included members of Polish and non-Polish origin alike. Generally speaking, the ethnically non Polish noble families of Lithuania adopted the Polish language and culture. As a result, in the eastern territories of the kingdom a Polish or Polonized aristocracy dominated a peasantry whose great majority was neither Polish nor Catholic. This bred resentment that later grew into separate Lithuanian, Belarusian, and Ukrainian nationalist movements.
In the mid-sixteenth century, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth sought ways to maintain control of the diverse state in spite of two threatening circumstances. First, since the late 1400s a series of ambitious tsars of the house of Rurik had led Russia in competing with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania for influence over the Slavic territories located between the two states. Second, Sigismund II Augustus (1548-1572) had no male heir. The Jagiellon Dynasty, the essential link between the states, would end after his reign. Accordingly, the Union of Lublin of 1569 transformed a loose confederation and a personal union of the Jagiellonian epoch into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, deepening and formalizing the bonds between Poland and Lithuania. See also Muscovite wars.