Thursday, January 31, 2008

Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994 between North Korea (DPRK) and the United States. The objective of the agreement was the freezing and replacement of North Korea's indigenous nuclear power plant program with more nuclear proliferation resistant light water reactor power plants,[1] and the step-by-step normalization of relations between the U.S. and the DPRK. The agreement largely broke-down by 2003.

Final break down of the agreement

North Korea and weapons of mass destruction
Six-party talks
List of Korea-related topics

Wednesday, January 30, 2008

Objectivity in measurement
Another methodological aspect is the avoidance of bias, which can involve cognitive bias and cultural bias, but also sampling bias. Methods for avoiding or overcoming such bias include random sampling and double-blind trials.

Objectivity in experimental set-up and interpretation
Next to unintentional but possibly systematic error, there is always the possibility of deliberate falsification of scientific results, whether for gain, for fame, or for ideological motives. When such cases of scientific fraud come to light, they usually give rise to an academic scandal, but it is (obviously) not known how much fraud goes undiscovered. However, for results that are considered important, other groups will try to repeat the experiment and fail, bringing these negative results into the scientific debate.

Scientific objectivity The role of the scientific community
Based on a historical review of the development of certain scientific theories, in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions historian Thomas Kuhn raised some philosophical objections to claims of the possibility of scientific understanding being truly objective. In Kuhn's analysis, scientists in different disciplines organise themselves into de facto paradigms, within which scientific research is done, junior scientists are educated, and scientific problems are determined. The implicit social hierarchy of a scientific paradigm ensures that only scientists who are thoroughly immersed in the intellectual construction of the paradigm acquire the reputation and status to pronounce authoritatively on matters of dispute, and those scientists have a vested interest in maintaining the status quo (which confers on them this de facto position of authority).
When observational data arises which appears to contradict or "falsify" a given scientific paradigm, scientists within that paradigm have not, historically, immediately rejected the paradigm in question (as Sir Karl Popper's philosophical theory of falsificationism would have them do) but have gone to considerable lengths to resolve the apparent conflict without rejecting the paradigm, through ad hoc variations to the theory, sympathetic interpretations of the data which allow for assimilation, determination that the "conundrum" the data was obtained to explain in the first place is misconceived, or in extreme cases simply ignoring the data altogether (for example, on the basis of the lack of scientific credentials of its source).
Thus, Kuhn argues, the failure of a scientific revolution is not an objectively measurable, deterministic event, but a far more contingent shift in social order. A paradigm will go into a crisis when a significant portion of the scientists working in the field lose confidence in the paradigm, regardless of their reasons for doing so. The corollary of this observation is that the primacy of a given paradigm is similarly contingent on the social order amongst scientists at the time it gains ascendancy.
Kuhn's theory has been criticised (by Richard Dawkins and Alan Sokal, among others) as presenting a profoundly relativist view of scientific progress. In a postscript to the third edition of his book, Kuhn denied being a relativist.

Tuesday, January 29, 2008

European EnlightenmentEuropean Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment (French: Siècle des Lumières; German: Aufklärung) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. The term can more narrowly refer to the intellectual movement of The Enlightenment, which advocated Reason as the primary basis of authority. Developing in France, Britain and Germany, its sphere of influence also included Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Scandinavia, Spain and, in fact, the whole of Europe. Many of the United States' Founding Fathers were also heavily influenced by Enlightenment-era ideas, particularly in the religious sphere (Deism) and, in parallel with classical liberalism, in the political sphere (which had a major influence on its Bill of Rights, in parallel with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen).
The era is generally agreed to have ended around the year 1800 and the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1804-15).

As with theology, philosophy became a source of partisan debate, with different schools attempting to develop rationales for their viewpoints. Philosophers such as Spinoza searched for a metaphysics of ethics, which influenced pietism and the transcendental philosophy of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant.
Religion was linked to another concept which inspired a great amount of Enlightenment thought, namely the rise of the Nation-state. In the medieval and Renaissance periods, the state was restricted by the need to work through a host of intermediaries. This system existed because of poor communication, where localism thrived in return for loyalty to some central organization. Following improvements in transportation, organization, navigation and finally the influx of gold and silver from trade and conquest, however, the state assumed more authority and power. Intellectuals responded with a series of theories on the purpose and limit of state power. Throughout The Enlightenment, absolutism was therefore cemented. A string of philosophers (amongst them John Locke) reacted by advocating limitations on legitimate state power, influencing both Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The influence of these Enlightenment ideas extended to organizations seeking to affect state and social development and ultimately had a profound effect on the actions of politically active individuals worldwide.
Within the period of the Enlightenment, the question of what was the proper relationship of the citizen to the state continued to be explored. The idea that society is a contract between individual and some larger entity, whether society or state, was developed philosophically by a series of thinkers, including Rousseau, Montesquieu and Jefferson. Other thinkers, heralding romanticism, advocated the idea that nationality had a basis beyond mere preference. Philosophers such as Johann Gottfried von Herder expounded the idea that language had a decisive influence on cognition and thought, and that the meaning of a particular book or text was open to deeper exploration based on deeper connections, an idea now called hermeneutics. The two concepts -- of the contractual nature between the state and the citizen, and the reality of the nation beyond that contract -- had a decisive influence in the development of liberalism, democracy and constitutional government which followed.
At the same time, the integration of algebraic thinking, acquired from the Islamic world over the previous two centuries, and geometric thinking which had dominated Western mathematics and philosophy since at least Eudoxus, precipitated a scientific and mathematical revolution. Sir Isaac Newton's greatest claim to prominence came from a systematic application of algebra to geometry, and synthesizing a workable calculus which was applicable to scientific problems. The Enlightenment was a time when the solar system was truly discovered: with the accurate calculation of orbits, such as Halley's comet, the discovery of the first planet since antiquity, Uranus by William Herschel, and the calculation of the mass of the Sun using Newton's theory of universal gravitation. These series of discoveries had a momentous effect on both pragmatic commerce and philosophy. The excitement engendered by creating a new and orderly vision of the world, as well as the need for a philosophy of science which could encompass the new discoveries, greatly influenced both religious and secular ideas. If Newton could order the cosmos with natural philosophy, so, many argued, could political philosophy order the body politic.
Within the Enlightenment, two main theories contended to be the basis of that ordering: divine right and natural law. The writings of Jacques-Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704) set the paradigm for the divine right: that the universe was ordered by a reasonable God, and therefore his representative on earth had the powers of that God. The orderliness of the cosmos was seen as proof of God; therefore it was a proof of the power of monarchy. Natural law began, not as a reaction against divinity, but instead, as an abstraction: God did not rule arbitrarily, but through natural laws that he enacted on earth. Thomas Hobbes, though an absolutist in government, drew on this argument in Leviathan. Once the concept of natural law was invoked, however, it took on a life of its own. If natural law could be used to bolster the position of the monarchy, it could also be used to assert the rights of subjects of that monarch. If there were natural laws, then there were natural rights associated with them, just as there are rights under man-made laws.
What both theories had in common was the need for an orderly and comprehensible function of government. The "Enlightened Despotism" of, for example, Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia, was not based on mystical appeals to authority, but on the pragmatic invocation of state power as necessary in order to hold back the anarchy of warfare and rebellion. Regularization and standardization were seen as good things because they allowed the state to reach its power outwards over the entirety of its domain and because they liberated people from being entangled in endless local custom. Additionally, they expanded the sphere of economic and social activity.
Thus rationalization, standardization and the search for fundamental unities occupied much of the Enlightenment and its arguments over proper methodology and nature of understanding. The culminating efforts of the Enlightenment include, amongst other things, the economics of Adam Smith, the physical chemistry of Antoine Lavoisier, the idea of evolution pursued by Johann Wolfgang Goethe and the declaration by Jefferson of inalienable rights. Development in the philosophy of the Enlightenment was also the basis for overthrowing the idea of a completely rational and comprehensible universe, and led, in turn, to the metaphysics of Hegel and Romanticism.

The Enlightenment occupies a central role in the justification for the movement known as modernism. The neo-classicizing trend in modernism came to see itself as a period of rationality which overturned established traditions, analogously to the Encyclopaediasts and other Enlightenment philosophers. A variety of 20th century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, traced their intellectual heritage back to the Enlightenment, and away from the purported emotionalism of the 19th century. Geometric order, rigor and reductionism were seen as Enlightenment virtues. The modern movement points to reductionism and rationality as crucial aspects of Enlightenment thinking, of which it is the heir, as opposed to irrationality and emotionalism. In this view, the Enlightenment represents the basis for modern ideas of liberalism against superstition and intolerance. Influential philosophers who have held this view include Jürgen Habermas and Isaiah Berlin.
This view asserts that the Enlightenment was the point when Europe broke through what historian Peter Gay calls "the sacred circle," whose dogma had circumscribed thinking. The Enlightenment is held to be the source of critical ideas, such as the centrality of freedom, democracy and reason as primary values of society. This view argues that the establishment of a contractual basis of rights would lead to the market mechanism and capitalism, the scientific method, religious tolerance, and the organization of states into self-governing republics through democratic means. In this view, the tendency of the philosophes in particular to apply rationality to every problem is considered the essential change. From this point on, thinkers and writers were held to be free to pursue the truth in whatever form, without the threat of sanction for violating established ideas.
With the end of the Second World War and the rise of post-modernity, these same features came to be regarded as liabilities - excessive specialization, failure to heed traditional wisdom or provide for unintended consequences, and the romanticization of Enlightenment figures - such as the Founding Fathers of the United States, prompted a backlash against both Science and Enlightenment based dogma in general. Philosophers such as Michel Foucault are often understood as arguing that the Age of Reason had to construct a vision of unreason as being demonic and subhuman, and therefore evil and befouling, whence by analogy to argue that rationalism in the modern period is, likewise, a construction. In their book, Dialectic of Enlightenment, Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno wrote a critique of what they perceived as the contradictions of Enlightenment thought: Enlightenment was seen as being at once liberatory and through the domination of instrumental rationality, tending towards totalitarianism.
Still yet, other leading intellectuals, such as Noam Chomsky, see a natural evolution, using the term loosely, from early Enlightenment thinking to other forms of social analysis, specifically from The Enlightenment to liberalism, anarchism and socialism. The relationship between these different schools of thought, Chomsky and others point out , can be seen in the works of von Humboldt, Kropotkin, Bakunin and Marx, among others.

See also

Henry F. May The Enlightenment in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976)
Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, Princeton University Press 1979
Mark Hulluing Autocritique of Enlightenment: Rousseau and the Philosophes 1994
Gay Peter. The Enlightenment: An Interpretation. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1996
Michel Foucault, What is enlightenment?
Redkop, Benjamin, The Enlightenment and Community, 1999
Melamed, Yitzhak Y, Salomon Maimon and the Rise of Spinozism in German Idealism, Journal of the History of Philosophy, Volume 42, Issue 1
Porter, Roy The Enlightenment 1999
Jacob, Margaret Enlightenment: A Brief History with Documents 2000
Thomas Munck Enlightenment: A Comparative Social History, 1721-1794
Arthur Herman How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of how Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World and Everything in It 2001
Stuart Brown ed., British Philosophy in the Age of Enlightenment 2002
Alan Charles Kors, ed. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. 4 volumes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003
Buchan, James Crowded with Genius: The Scottish Enlightenment: Edinburgh's Moment of the Mind 2003
Bernard Dieterle, Manfred Engel (ed.), The Dream and the Enlightenment / Le Rêve et les Lumières. Paris: Honoré Champion 2003, ISBN 2-7453-0672-3.
Louis Dupre The Enlightenment & the Intellctural Foundations of Modern Culture 2004
Himmelfarb, Gertrude The Roads to Modernity: The British, French, and American Enlightenments, 2004
Stephen Eric Bronner Interpreting the Enlightenment: Metaphysics, Critique, and Politics, 2004
Jonathan Hill, Faith in the Age of Reason, Lion/Intervarsity Press 2004
Stephen Eric Bronner The Great Divide: The Enlightenment and its Critics
The London Philosophy Study Guide offers many suggestions on what to read, depending on the student's familiarity with the subject: Modern Philosophy

Monday, January 28, 2008

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex.
The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant j, which ranks as overall, among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages. The nasal ɲ is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages, in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the plosive c, but the affricate . Only a few languages in northern Eurasia, the Americas and central Africa contrast palatal plosives with postalveolar affricates - the only common ones being Hungarian, Czech, Slovak and Albanian.
Warning: the IPA symbols <c, ɟ> are commonly used, not for palatal stops, but for the palatalized velar stops [kʲ, ɡʲ], or the palatal affricates [c͡ç, ɟ͡ʝ], or the alveolopalatal affricates [t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ], or even the postalveolar affricates [t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ]. This is an old IPA tradition. True palatal stops are relatively uncommon, so it is a good idea to verify the pronunciation whenever you see <c, ɟ> in the transcription of a language.
Consonants with other primary articulations may be palatalised, that is, accompanied by the raising of the tongue surface towards the hard palate. For example, English [ʃ] (spelled sh) has such a palatal component, although its primary articulation involves the tip of the tongue and the upper gum (this type of articulation is called palatoalveolar). The palatal consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are:

Palatal Notes

Saturday, January 26, 2008

Mark Berger
Professor Mark C. Berger (July 24, 1955April 30, 2003), was the director of The Center for Business and Economic Research at the University of Kentucky until his death at age 47. He was also a Fullbright Scholar at University College Dublin. In the 1970's, Berger was a member of the Professional Putters of America (an organization founded by Putt-Putt). Originally hailing from Sylvania, Ohio, Berger earned his BA from the University of Toledo and his MA and PhD from The Ohio State University.

Articles Mentioning Berger
by Mark C. Berger, Glenn C. Blomquist, Klara Sabirianova Peter (October 2003)
by Mark C. Berger, John S. Earle, Klara Sabirianova Peter (September 2001)
2004, 953-976.

Do Workers Pay for On-the-Job Training? Barron, John M., Mark C. Berger, and Dan A. Black. 1999. Journal of Human Resources 34(2):235-252.
Compensating Differentials in Emerging Labor and Housing Markets: Estimates of Quality of Life in Russian Cities
Worker Training in a Restructuring Economy: Evidence from the Russian Transition
Berger, Mark C.; Hirsch, Barry T., "The Effects of Cohort Size on the Earnings Growth of Young Males." Mimeograph. Department of Economics, University of Kentucky, n.d..
Berger, Mark C.; Black, Dan A.; Scott, Frank A.; Chandra, Amitabh, "Health insurance coverage of the unemployed: COBRA and the potential effects of Kassebaum-Kennedy." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. Sum 1999, 18, (3), 430 - 448.
Berger, Mark C.; Black, Dan A.; Scott, Frank A., "How well do we measure employer-provided health insurance coverage." Contemporary Economic Policy. Jul 1998, 16, (3), 356 - 367.
Barron, John M.; Berger, Mark C.; Black, Dan A., "How Well Do We Measure Training?." Journal of Labor Economics. 1997, 15, (3, part 1), 507 - 528.
Scott, Frank A.; Berger, Mark C.; Garen, John E., "Do health insurance and pension costs reduce the job opportunities of older workers?." Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Jul 1995, 48, (4), 775.
Berger, Mark C., "Demographic Cycles, Cohort Size, and Earnings." Demography. May 1989, 26, (2), 311.
Berger, Mark C.; Leigh, J. Paul, "Schooling, self-selection, and health." Journal of Human Resources. Sum 1989, 24, (3), 433 - 455.
Scott, Frank A.; Berger, Mark C.; Black, Dan A., "Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation." Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Jan 1989, 42, (2), 216 - 229.
Berger, Mark C., "Predicted Future Earnings and Choice of College Major." Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Apr 1988, 41, (3), 418 - 429.
Berger, Mark C.; Blomquist, Glenn C.; Waldner, Werner, "A Revealed-Preference Ranking of Quality of Life for Metropolitan Areas." Social Science Quarterly. Dec 1987, 68, (4), 761 - 778.
Berger, Mark C.; Hirsch, Barry T., "Veteran Status as a Screening Device During the Vietnam Era." Social Science Quarterly. Mar 1985, 66, (1), 79 - 89.
Berger, Mark C., "Cohort Size and the Earnings Growth of Young Workers." Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Jul 1984, 37, (4), 582 - 591.
Berger, Mark C., "Changes in labor force composition and male earnings: A production approach." Journal of Human Resources. Spr 1983, 18, (2), 177 - 196.
Berger, Mark C.; Hirsch, Barry T., "The civilian earnings experience of Vietnam-Era veterans." Journal of Human Resources. Aut 1983, 18, (4), 455 - 479.
Mark Berger, Dan Black, and Frank Scott, "Is There Job Lock?" Southern Economic Journal 70, April
Eric Thompson, Frank Scott, and Mark Berger, "Deregulation in the Electric Utility Industry: Excess Capacity and the Transition to a Long Run Competitive Market," Growth and Change 35, Winter 2004, 1-21.
Mark Berger, Dan Black, Amitabh Chandra, and Frank Scott, "Children, Nondiscriminatory Provision of Fringe Benefits, and Household Labor Market Decisions," Research in Labor Economics vol. 22 (Worker Well-being and Public Policy, S. W. Polachek, ed.) 2003, 309-349.
Mark Berger, Dan Black, Jodi Messer, and Frank Scott, "COBRA, Spouse Coverage, and Health Insurance Decisions of Older Households," Journal of Forensic Economics 15, Spring/Summer 2002, 147-164.
Dan Black, Mark Berger, and Frank Scott, "Bounding Parameter Estimates with Non-Classical Measurement Error," Journal of the American Statistical Association 95, September 2000, 739-748.
Mark C. Berger, Dan A. Black, Frank A. Scott, and Amitabh Chandra, "Health Insurance Coverage of the Unemployed: COBRA and the Potential Effects of Kassebaum-Kennedy," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 18, Summer 1999, 430-448.
Mark C. Berger, Dan A. Black, and Frank A. Scott, "How Well Do We Measure Employer-Provided Health Insurance?" Contemporary Economic Policy 16, July 1998, 356-367.
John Garen, Mark Berger, and Frank Scott, "Pensions, Non-Discrimination Policies, and the Employment of Older Workers," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 36, Winter 1996, 417-429.
Frank A. Scott, Mark C. Berger, and John E. Garen, "Do Health Insurance Costs and Non-Discrimination Policies Reduce the Job Opportunities of Older Workers?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48, July 1995, 775-791.

Friday, January 25, 2008

UK 82
UK 82 (Also known as UK Hardcore, Second Generation UK Punk, and No Future Punk) is a subgenre of punk rock that occurred in the United Kingdom in the early 1980s.
The term UK 82 was not used until many years after the fact. It gained popularity after the release of the Slayer/Ice T collaboration covering three songs by The Exploited on the Judgment Night film soundtrack, the most memorable being the reworking of "UK82" as "LA92" with updated lyrics by Ice T. This exposed the material to large numbers of Slayer fans who were keen to seek the original recordings out, and the name stuck, as a convenient reference point for the style of the British punk bands of that specific era, as opposed to the original "77 Punk". Other notable bands of the UK82 genre include Discharge, Disorder, Chaos UK, Amebix, Charged GBH, Broken Bones and The Varukers.
Unlike the first wave of punk rock that had roots in pub rock and garage rock, UK 82 was built upon the existing punk sound and took in several elements of the thriving New Wave of British Heavy Metal. The two genres developed alongside each other, and many stylistic elements crossed over. This was years before the development of crossover thrash, which is a subgenre and hybrid of American hardcore punk and thrash metal. The music tends to incorporate distorted guitar and bass, and a fast, simple drumming style that became known as Dbeat, with vocals often being shouted, but not screamed. While it's not clear that UK 82 was directly influenced by the American hardcore punk scene (or vice versa), the two movements arose at the same time and had many similarities. Many of bands influenced the emergent thrash metal bands of the mid 1980s, some of them being comprised of UK 82 bands trying to cross over, notably English Dogs, The Exploited and Onslaught, who became very popular in the late 1980s before moving towards a more traditional Heavy Metal sound.
Many of the lyrics sung by UK82 bands were notably darker and more violent than earlier punk bands, which mostly sang about, nihilistic ideals. Lyrics of UK82 tended to focus on the possibilities of a nuclear holocaust, and the apocalypse, partially due to the cold war atmosphere. The other mainstay of the lyrics of the time was Unemployment, and the Conservative Party government of the time, demonizing the Conservative leader Margaret Thatcher in the same way the American hardcore punk bands did with the Ronald Reagan administration. Negative outlooks about the world's demise contrasted with the positive punk and satire that found its way into many American hardcore bands.

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Vernon Earl Monroe (born on November 21, 1944, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an American former professional basketball player known for his flamboyant dribbling, passing and play-making. His nicknames included both "Earl The Pearl" and his Philadelphia nickname, "Black Jesus".

From early age, Monroe was a playground legend. His high school teammates at John Bartram High School called him "Thomas Edison" because of the many moves he invented.
Monroe rose to prominence at the Division II level playing basketball at Winston-Salem State University, located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Under the coaching of Hall of Fame coach Clarence "Big House" Gaines, Monroe averaged 7.1 points his freshman year, 23.2 points as a sophomore, 29.8 points as a junior and 41.5 points his senior year. In 1967, he earned NCAA College Division Player of the Year honors and led the Rams to the NCAA College Division Championship.
Earl is a member of the Groove Phi Groove, SFI.

Early years
In 1967, the two-time All-American was drafted by the Baltimore Bullets (now the Washington Wizards) in the first round of the NBA draft (2nd overall pick). He won the NBA Rookie of the Year Award in a season in which he averaged 24.3 points per game, and scored 56 points in a game against the Los Angeles Lakers. This was the third-highest rookie total in NBA history at the time and also a franchise record (later broken by Gilbert Arenas on December 17, 2006).
He formed a formidable one-two punch with Wes Unseld and became a cult hero for his ability to run the fast break and for his circus-like shots. He said "The thing is, I don't know what I'm going to do with the ball, and if I don't know, I'm quite sure the guy guarding me doesn't know either." [1]. On February 6, 1970, he set an NBA record with 13 points in one overtime in a double overtime victory over the Detroit Pistons (since surpassed by Gilbert Arenas).

Baltimore Bullets
In 1971, Monroe was traded to the New York Knicks and formed a celebrity backcourt with equally flamboyant Walt Frazier. The duo meshed together to form one of the most deadly guard combinations of all time, featuring two Hall of Famers and NBA 50th Anniversary Team members. With Monroe, the Knicks won the 1973 NBA championship.
A four-time NBA All-Star, Monroe retired after the 1980 season due to serious knee injuries, which plagued him throughout his career. He had played 926 NBA career games, scored 17,454 total points (18.8 ppg) and dished out 3,594 assists. Monroe, who, along with Pete Maravich, was among the first to transform the NBA game into an exhilarating art form, had his number 15 jersey retired by the Knicks on March 1, 1986.
Even Monroe admits that his flowing, fluid, silky-smooth on-court style of play was unique. He has said: "You know, I watch the games and even now I never see anyone who reminds me of me, the way I played."

Earl Monroe New York Knicks

Monroe scored over 1,000 points in 9 professional seasons (1968-71, 1973,1975-78) including a career high 2,065 (25.8 points per game) in the 1968-69 season.
In 1990, he was enshrined in the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame.
Monroe was named one of the 50 players on the NBA 50th Anniversary All-Time Team in 1996.
Monroe was chosen commissioner of the United States Basketball League in 1985.
In 2005, an American Basketball Association team, the Baltimore Pearls, was named in honor of Earl Monroe.
He is the innovator of the spin move. Earl Monroe Notes

In the Spike Lee film He Got Game Jake Shuttlesworth (Denzel Washington) explains to his son, Jesus Shuttlesworth (Ray Allen) that his name was inspired by Monroe's nickname: "Jesus".
In the film "The United States of Leland" Pearl Madison (Don Cheadle) is named after Monroe's nickname: "Pearl"

Wednesday, January 23, 2008

Deduction can refer to one of the following usages:
Relating to taxation:

Deductive reasoning, inference in which the conclusion is of no greater generality than the premises
Natural deduction, an approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning as it "naturally" occurs
Itemized deductions
Standard deduction

Tuesday, January 22, 2008

A typewriter is a mechanical, electromechanical, or electronic device with a set of "keys" that, when pressed, cause characters to be printed on a document, usually paper.
In the late 19th century and at the start of the 20th century, a person who operated such a device was sometimes called a typewriter but it then became more common to call the person a typist.
For much of the 20th century, typewriters were indispensable tools in business offices and for many (if not all) professional writers. By the 1980s, however, word processor applications on personal computers largely overtook the tasks previously accomplished with typewriters. However, typewriters are still popular in the developing world and among some niche markets.
As of 2006, the following companies manufacture typewriters and accessories: Smith-Corona, Olivetti, Adler-Royal, Olympia, Brother, and Nakajima. Olivetti is the only western company to currently manufacture manual typewriters. All other current models are electronic.

Early innovations
By about 1920, the "manual" or "mechanical" typewriter had reached a more or less standardized design. There were minor variations from one manufacturer to another, but most typewriters followed the design noted below:
Each key was attached to a typebar that had the corresponding letter molded into its other end. When a key was struck briskly and firmly, the typebar hit a ribbon (usually made of inked fabric) stretched in front of a cylindrical platen that moved back and forth. The paper was rolled around by the typewriter's platen, which was then rotated by a lever (the "carriage return" lever at the far left) to each new line of text. Some ribbons were inked in black and red, each a stripe half the width and the entire length of the ribbon. A lever on most machines allowed switching between colors for typing bookkeeping entries, where negative amounts had to be in red.
In the 1940s, a silent typewriter was marketed, but it failed, leading some observers to the conclusion that the clickety-clack of the typical typewriter was a consumer preference.

Though electric typewriters would not achieve widespread popularity until nearly a century later, the basic groundwork for the electric typewriter was laid by the Universal Stock Ticker, invented by Thomas Edison in 1870. This device remotely printed letters and numbers on a stream of paper tape from input generated by a specially designed typewriter at the other end of a telegraph line.
The first electric typewriter was produced by the Blickensderfer Manufacturing Company, of Stamford, Connecticut, in 1902. While never marketed commercially, this was the first known typewriter to use a typewheel rather than individual typebars, although the element was cylindrical rather than ball-shaped. The next step in the development of the electric typewriter came in 1909, when Charles and Howard Krum file a patent for the first practical teletype machine in 1909. The Krums' machine also used a typewheel rather than individual typebars. While innovative, neither of these machines reached the business or personal consumer.
Electrical typewriter designs removed the direct mechanical connection between the keys and the element that struck the paper. Not to be confused with later electronic typewriters, electric typewriters contained only a single electrical component: the motor. Where the keystroke had previously moved a typebar directly, now it engaged mechanical linkages that directed mechanical power from the motor into the typebar. This was also true of the forthcoming IBM Selectric.
IBM and Remington Rand electric typewriters were the leading models until IBM introduced the IBM Selectric typewriter, which replaced the typebars with a spherical typeball (more correctly, "element"), slightly larger than a golf ball, with the letters molded on its surface. The Selectric used a system of latches, metal tapes, and pulleys driven by an electric motor to rotate the ball into the correct position and then strike it against the ribbon and platen. The typeball moved laterally in front of the paper instead of the former platen-carrying carriage moving the paper across a stationary print position.
The typeball design had many advantages, especially in eliminating of "jams" when more than one key was struck at once, and in the ability to change the typeball, allowing multiple fonts to be used in a single document. Selectric mechanisms were widely incorporated into computer terminals in the 1970s, because the typing mechanism was reasonably fast and jam-free; could produce very high quality output compared to competitors such as Teletype machines, could be initiated by a short, low-force mechanical action; did not require the movement of a heavy "type basket" in order to shift between lower- and upper-case; and did not require the platen roller assembly to move from side to side (which would be a problem with continuous-feed paper). The IBM 2741 terminal was a very popular example of a Selectric-based computer terminal, and similar mechanisms were employed as the console devices for many IBM System/360 computers. These mechanisms did use "ruggedized" designs compared to those in standard commercial typewriters.
IBM also gained an advantage by marketing more heavily to schools than Remington, with the idea being that students who learned to type on an IBM Electric would later choose IBM typewriters over the competition in the workplace as businesses replaced their old manual models.
Later models of IBM Executives and Selectrics replaced inked fabric ribbons with "carbon film" ribbons that had a dry black or colored powder on a "once-through" clear plastic tape. These could be used only once but later models used a cartridge that was simple to replace. A side effect of this technology is that the text typed on the machine can be easily read from the used ribbon. This "feature" raised issues where the machines were used for preparing classified documents; ribbons had to be accounted for to ensure that typists didn't walk out with them in pockets or purses. A document reconstructed from a used carbon ribbon was portrayed as the key to solving a crime in an episode of Columbo.
A variation known as "Correcting Selectrics" introduced correction, where a sticky tape in front of the print ribbon could remove the black-powdered image of a typed character, and introduced selectable "pitch" so that the typewriter could be switched among pica ("10 pitch", or 10 characters per inch) and elite ("12 pitch"), even in one document. Even so, all Selectrics were monospaced—each and every character was allotted the same horizontal space on the page. Although IBM had produced a successful typebar-based machine, the IBM Executive, with proportional spacing, no proportionally spaced Selectric office typewriter was ever introduced. There was, however, a much more expensive proportionally spaced machine called the Selectric Composer which was capable of right-margin justification and so was considered a typesetting machine rather than a typewriter, and the more reasonably priced IBM Electronic Typewriter 50, which was capable of proportional spacing but not justifying.
The final major development of the typewriter was the "electronic" typewriter. Most of these replaced the typeball with a daisy wheel mechanism (a disk with the letters molded on the outside edge of the "petals"). A plastic daisy-wheel was much simpler and cheaper than the typeball but wore out more easily. Some electronic typewriters were in essence dedicated word processors with internal memory and cartridge or diskette external memory-storage devices. Unlike the Selectrics and earlier models, these really were "electronic" and relied on integrated circuits and multiple electromechanical components.

Electric designs
Towards the end of the commercial popularity of typewriters in the 1980s, a number of hybrid designs combining features of computer printers and typewriters were introduced.
These typically incorporated keyboards from existing models of typewriters and the printing mechanism of dot-matrix printers. The generation of teletypes with impact pin-based printing engines was not adequate for the demanding quality required for typed output. Newly developed, thermal transfer technologies used in thermal label printers had become technically feasible for typewriters.
IBM produced a series of typewriters called Thermotronic with letter-quality output and correcting tape along with printers tagged Quietwriter. Brother extended the life of their typewriter product line with similar products. DEC meanwhile had the DECwriter.
The development of these proprietary printing engines provided the vendors with exclusive markets in consumable ribbons and the possibility to use standardised printing engines with varying degrees of electronic and software sophistication to develop product lines.
The increasing dominance of personal computers and the introduction of low-cost, truly high-quality, laser and inkjet printer technologies are replacing typewriters.

Computer/typewriter hybrids
Even with the proliferation of the personal computer and word processing software, typewriters continued to be used in professional offices (lawyers, doctors, schools, etc.) for specialized applications such as filling out pre-printed forms, addressing envelopes, and writing letters. However, modern computer programs enable computer users to accomplish most or all of these tasks.
The monospaced, stark, and slightly uneven look of typewritten text can have some artistic appeal, and some people, young and old, prefer to use a typewriter.
In some less developed countries, where personal computers are not ubiquitous, one may find public spaces with individuals who rent out their services as on-the-spot letter writers, accepting dictation from their customers, who may be illiterate or who simply do not own a typewriter. In Mexico, for example, such a thing can be seen daily on Calle Heroes de Cañonero in downtown Tampico.

Typewriter legacy
The 1874 Sholes & Glidden typewriters established the QWERTY layout for the letter keys. During the period in which Sholes and his colleagues were experimenting with this invention, other keyboard arrangements were apparently tried, but these are poorly documented. The tantalizing near-alphabetical sequence on the "home row" of the QWERTY layout (d-f-g-h-j-k-l) demonstrates that a straightforward alphabetical arrangement was the original starting point.

Keyboard layout
Several words of the 'typewriter age' have survived into the personal computer era. Examples include:

carbon copy – now in its abbreviated form "CC" designating copies of email messages (with no carbon involved, at least not until potential printouts);
cursor – a marker used to indicate where the next character will be printed
carriage return (CR) – indicating an end of line and return to the first column of text (and on some computer platforms, advancing to the next line)
line feed (LF), aka 'newline' – standing for moving the cursor to the next on-screen line of text in a word processor document (and on the eventual printout(s) of the document). Computer jargon
When Remington first started marketing typewriters, the company assumed the machine would not be used for composing but for amanuensis purposes, and that the person typing would be a woman. Flowers were printed on the casing of early models in order to make the machine seem more comfortable for women to use. In the United States, women started working in the professional workforce very often as typists, and according to the 1910 U.S. Census, 81 percent of typists were female. With more women brought out of the home and into offices, there was some concern about the effects this would have on the morals of society, both by moralists and pornographers. The "typewriter girl" became part of the iconography of early-twentieth-century pornography. The "Tijuana bibles" — dirty comic books produced in Mexico for the American market, starting in the 1930s — often featured women typists. In one panel, businessman in a three-piece suit, ogling at his secretary's thigh, says, "Miss Higby, are you ready for—ahem!—er—dictation?"
The famous quote by Marcus Glenn, "Live by the typewriter, die by the typewriter!" also dates from this period.

Typewriter The effect of typewriters on culture
According to the standards taught in secretarial schools in the mid-1900s, a business letter was supposed to have no mistakes and no visible corrections. Accuracy was prized as much as speed. Indeed, typing speeds, as scored in proficiency tests and typewriting speed competitions, included a deduction of ten words for every mistake that was made.
Corrections were, of course, necessary, and a variety of methods and technologies were used.
The traditional method involved the use of a special typewriter eraser. The typewriter eraser was made of fairly hard, stiff rubber, containing abrasive material. It was in the shape of a thin, flat disk, approx. 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter by 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick allowing for the erasure of individual typed letters. Business letters were typed on heavyweight, high-rag-content bond paper, not merely to provide a luxurious appearance, but also to stand up to erasure. Typewriter erasers were equipped with a brush for brushing away eraser crumbs and paper dust, and using the brush properly was an important element of typewriting skill, because if erasure detritus fell into the typewriter, a very small buildup could cause the typebars to jam in their narrow supporting grooves.
Erasing a set of carbon copies was particularly difficult, and called for the use of a device called an eraser shield to prevent the pressure of erasure on the upper copies from producing carbon smudges on the lower copies.
Paper companies produced a special form of typewriter paper called erasable bond (for example, Eaton's Corrasable Bond). This incorporated a thin layer of material that prevented ink from penetrating and was relatively soft and easy to remove from the page. An ordinary soft pencil eraser could quickly produce perfect erasures on this kind of paper. However, the same characteristics that made the paper erasable made the characters subject to smudging due to ordinary friction and deliberate alteration after the fact, making it unacceptable for business correspondence, contracts, or any archival use.
In the 1950s and 1960s, correction fluid made its appearance, under brand names such as Liquid Paper, Wite-Out and Tipp-Ex. This was a kind of opaque white fast-drying paint which produced a fresh white surface onto which a correction could be re-typed. However, when held to the light, the covered-up characters were visible, as was the patch of dry correction fluid (which was never perfectly flat, and never a perfect match for the color, texture, and luster of the surrounding paper). The standard trick for solving this problem was photocopying the corrected page, but this was possible only with high quality photocopiers.
Dry correction products (such as correction paper) under brand names such as "Ko-Rec-Type" were introduced in the 1970s and functioned like white carbon paper. A strip of the product was placed over the letters needing correction, and the incorrect letters were retyped, causing the black character to be overstruck with a white overcoat. Similar material was soon incorporated in carbon-film electric typewriter ribbons; like the traditional two-color black-and-red inked ribbon common on manual typewriters, a black/white correcting ribbon became commonplace on electric typewriters.
The pinnacle of this kind of technology was the IBM Electronic Typewriter series. These machines, and similar products from other manufacturers, used a separate correction ribbon and a character memory. With a single keystroke, the typewriter was capable of automatically reversing and overstriking the previous characters with minimal marring of the paper. White cover-up or plastic lift-off correction ribbons are used with fabric ink or carbon film typing ribbons, respectively.

Correction methods
During the 1920s through 1940s, typing speed was an important secretarial qualification and typing contests were popular, publicized by typewriter companies as promotional tools.
As of 2005, Barbara Blackburn is the fastest English language typist in the world, according to The Guinness Book of World Records. Using the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard, she has maintained 150 word/min for 50 min and 170 word/min for shorter periods and has been clocked at a peak speed of 212 word/min. Blackburn, who failed her typing class in high school, first encountered the Dvorak keyboard in 1938, quickly learned to achieve very high speeds, and occasionally toured giving speed-typing demonstrations during her secretarial career. She appeared on The David Letterman Show and was deeply offended by Letterman's comedic treatment of her skill.
Popular software named "Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing" had led many people to assume that there is a woman named Mavis Beacon who is a very good typist. Mavis Beacon is a fictional promotional character, who is commonly represented as an African American female.

Typing speed records and speed contests

Authors and writers who had unusual relationships with typewriters
The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche used a typewriter in an attempt to stem his migraine headaches and his incipient blindness. Mark Twain was the first important writer to present a publisher with a typewritten manuscript (for Life on the Mississippi). Henry James dictated to a typist.

Early adopters
William S. Burroughs wrote in some of his novels — and possibly believed — that "a machine he called the 'Soft Typewriter' was writing our lives, and our books, into existence", according to a book review in The New Yorker. And in the film adaptation of his novel, "Naked Lunch", his typewriter is a living, insect-like entity (voiced by Burroughs himself) and actually dictates the book to him.
Ernest Hemingway used to write his books standing up in front of a Royal typewriter suitably placed on a tall bookshelf. The typewriter on its bookshelf is kept in Finca Vigia, the author's Havana's house, now museum, where Hemingway lived until 1960--the year before his death.
Jack Kerouac, a fast typist at 100 words a minute, typed On the Road on a roll of paper so he wouldn't be interrupted as he wrote the book by having to change the paper, pushing him back into the world's inauthenticity. Within two weeks of starting to write On the Road, Kerouac had a single single-spaced paragraph 120 feet long. Some scholars say the scroll was shelf paper; others contend it was a Thermo-fax roll; another theory is that the roll consisted of sheets of architect's paper taped together.
Wall Street Journal writer Ellen Gamerman--who frequently covers computer and technology news--also composes her stories on a typewriter.

Andy Rooney, William F. Buckley Jr. were among many writers who were very reluctant to switch from typewriters to computers.

Late users
The composer Leroy Anderson wrote a short piece of music for orchestra and typewriter, which has since been used as the theme for numerous radio programs.
The Pulitzer Prize–winning musical comedy How To Succeed In Business Without Really Trying, music and lyrics by Frank Loesser, is a satire set in the world of big business and features typewriter sound effects in the song "A Secretary Is Not A Toy."
The Winnipeg band Poor Tree incorporates typewriters in their music. Two to three members would type a poem, while reading them at the same time interlocking the lines words and sounds.
The Dolly Parton song "9 to 5" features typewriter noises as percussion.
The Tom Tom Club used the clacking keys of a typewriter to open their 1981 single Wordy Rappinghood.
On the album "Taking Tiger Mountain By Strategy", Brian Eno takes a typewriter solo in the song "China My China".
Multi-instrumentalist and composer Yann Tiersen has used the typewriter as a percussion instrument in a number of his compositions, notably "Pas si simple" on his 1996 album Rue des Cascades.
Typewriters in songs and ambient typewriter sounds are present throughout the 1985 movie Brazil.
The All Girl Summer Fun Band song "Dear Mr. and Mrs. Troublemaker" begins with the singer dictating the salutation of a letter while typing it, eventually deciding on the song's title. The number of keystrokes are entirely mismatched to the length of the words being spoken.
On an early Janis Joplin demo, featuring Jefferson Airplane & Hot Tuna guitarist Jorma Kaukonen on guitar, you can hear somebody, (uncredited, but rumored to be Grace Slick), typing in the next room, and Jorma commenting on the unintentional & obtrusive percussion.

Typewriters in music
Because of the tolerances of the mechanical parts, slight variation in the alignment of the letters and their uneven wear, each typewriter has its individual "signature" or "fingerprint", allowing a typewritten document to be tracked back to the typewriter it was produced on. In the Eastern Bloc, typewriters (together with printing presses, copy machines, and later computer printers) were a controlled technology, with secret police in charge of maintaining files of the typewriters and their owners. (In the Soviet Union, the organization in charge of typewriters was the First Department of the KGB.) This posed a significant risk for dissidents and samizdat authors. This method of identification was also used in the trial of Alger Hiss.
Leopold and Loeb were firmly identified with kidnapping after a typewriter they used to type up a ransom note was traced back to a typewriter they owned.
Black/white computer printers have their "fingerprints" as well, but to lesser degree. Modern color printers and photocopiers typically add printer identification encoding—a steganographic pattern of minuscule yellow dots, encoding the printer's serial number—to the printout.
Other forensic identification method can involve analysis of the ribbon ink.

Forensic identification
On the Sinclair ZX Spectrum game Jet Set Willy, holding down the keys that spell 'typewriter' let the player cheat.

Typewriters in popular culture
The section could be improved by integrating relevant items into the main text and removing inappropriate items.
The word 'typewriter', along with the words 'perpetuity', 'proprietor' and 'repertoire', are some of the longest words you can spell in English using only the top row of a QWERTY keyboard.
The word 'stewardesses' is the longest word you can spell in English using only the 'left hand letters' of a QWERTY keyboard.
Onomatopoeic words for the sound a typewriter makes include (in English): "clickety-clack" "clackety clack" and "clack clack".

See also

Monday, January 21, 2008

Moe Howard (June 19, 1897May 4, 1975) was one of The Three Stooges, the slapstick comedy team who starred in motion pictures and television for four decades. His distinctive hairstyle came about when he was a boy and cut off his curls with a pair of scissors, producing a ragged shape approximating a helmet.

Moe was born Moses Horwitz in the Brooklyn, New York neighborhood of Bensonhurst to Sol & Jenny Horowitz . He was the fourth of the five Horwitz brothers and of Levite and Lithuanian Jewish ancestry. In his younger years, he got the nickname, Harry. Although his parents were not involved in show business, Moe, his older brother Samuel, and younger brother Jerome, all eventually became world-famous as members of The Three Stooges.
In school, Moe originally did quite well, aided by a prolific memory, able to quickly memorize anything. In later years, this helped him in his acting career, making memorizing his lines quick and easy. Moe loved reading, as his older brother Jack commented "I had many Horatio Alger books and it was Moe's greatest pleasure to read them. They started his imaginative mind working and gave him ideas by the dozen. I think they were instrumental in putting thoughts into his head to become a person of good character and to become successful."
Despite his decreasing attendance Moe graduated from public school 163 in Brooklyn, but he dropped out of Erasmus Hall High School after only two months. This was the end of his formal education. To mollify his parents he took a class in electric shop, but quit after a few months to pursue a career in show business.
Moe began by running errands for no fee at the Vitagraph Studios in Midwood, Brooklyn (currently the home of the CBS daytime serial As the World Turns), where he was rewarded with bit parts in movies being made there. Unfortunately, a fire at the studios in 1910 destroyed the film of most of Moe's work done there. In 1909 he met a young man named Lee Nash who would later provide a significant boost to Moe's career aspirations. In 1912, they both held a summer job working in Annette Kellerman's aquatic act as diving "girls."

Moe Howard Early life
Moe continued his attempts at gaining show business experience by singing in a bar with his older brother Shemp until their father put a stop to it, and in 1914 joining a performing troupe on a showboat for the next two summers. In 1921, he joined Lee Nash, who was now firmly established in show business as Ted Healy, in a vaudeville routine. In 1923 Moe spotted Shemp watching the show and yelled at him from the stage. Shemp and Moe heckled each other to a large positive repsonse from the audience and Healy hired Shemp as a permanent part of the act. Next, Healy recruited a vaudeville violinist, Larry Fine, in 1925, to join the comedy troupe, which was billed as Ted Healy and His Racketeers (later changed to Ted Healy and His Stooges).
On 1925-06-07, Moe Howard married Helen Schonberger, a cousin of magician Harry Houdini. The next year, Helen pressured Moe to leave the stage, as she was pregnant and wanted Moe nearer to home. Moe attempted to earn a living in a succession of "normal" jobs, none of which was very successful. He soon returned to working with Ted Healy.
By 1930, Ted Healy and his Stooges were on the verge of "the big time," and made their first movie, Soup to Nuts—featuring Ted Healy, and his four Stooges (Moe, Shemp, Larry, and one-shot Stooge Fred Sanborn)—for Fox Films (later Twentieth Century-Fox). Shemp had never seen eye-to-eye with the hard-drinking and sometimes belligerent Healy, and left the group shortly after filming in order to pursue a solo film career. After a short search for a replacement, Moe suggested his baby brother, Jerome ("Jerry" to his friends, "Babe" to Moe and Shemp). Healy originally passed on Jerry, but Jerry was so eager to join the act that he shaved off his luxuriant auburn mustache and hair and ran on stage during Healy's routine. Healy hired Jerry, who took the stage name of "Curly."
Healy and the Stooges were hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as "nut" comics, to liven up feature films and short subjects with their antics. After a number of appearances in MGM films, Healy was being groomed as a solo character comedian. With Healy pursuing his own career, his Stooges (now calling themselves "The Three Stooges") signed with Columbia Pictures where they stayed until December 1957, making 190 short films.
With Healy's departure, Moe's character assumed Healy's previous role of the aggressive, take-charge leader of the Three Stooges: a short-tempered bully, prone to slapstick violence against the other two Stooges. In many ways, this was the antithesis of Moe Howard's real personality; he was quiet, loving, and generous to his friends and family. He was also a shrewd businessman, and invested the money made from his film career wisely. However, the Stooges got no subsequent royalties from any of their many shorts: they were paid a flat amount for each one and Columbia owned the rights (and profits) thereafter.
In 1934, Columbia released its first Three Stooges short, Woman Haters, where their stooge characters were not quite finalized. It was not a Stooge comedy in the classic sense, but rather a romantic farce; Columbia was then making a series of two-reel "Musical Novelties" with the dialogue spoken in rhyme, and the Stooges were recruited to support comedienne Marjorie White. Only after the Stooges became established as short-subject stars were the main titles changed to give the Stooges top billing. The version seen on TV and video today is this reissue print.
Their next film, Punch Drunks, was the only short film that was written entirely by the Three Stooges, with Curly as a reluctant boxer who goes ballistic every time he hears "Pop Goes the Weasel." Their next short, Men in Black (a parody of the hospital drama Men in White) was their first and only film to be nominated for an Academy Award (with the classic catchphrase, "Calling Dr. Howard, Dr. Fine, Dr. Howard"). They continued making short films at a steady pace of eight per year, such as Three Little Pigskins (with a very young Lucille Ball), Pop Goes the Easel, Hoi Polloi (where two professors make a bet trying to turn the Three Stooges into gentlemen), and many others.
In the 1940s, the Three Stooges became topical, making several anti-Nazi movies including You Nazty Spy (1940) (Moe's favorite Three Stooges film), I'll Never Heil Again (1941), and They Stooge to Conga (1943). Moe's accurate impersonation of Adolf Hitler highlighted these shorts.
On May 6, 1946, during the filming of Half-Wits Holiday, brother Curly suffered a stroke. He was replaced in the Three Stooges by Shemp, who agreed to return to the group until Curly would be well enough to rejoin. Although Curly recovered enough to appear in Hold That Lion! in a cameo appearance (the only Three Stooges film to contain all three Howard brothers; Moe, Curly, and Shemp), he soon suffered a series of strokes which led to his death on January 18, 1952.
The Three Stooges' series of shorts continued to be popular through the 1950s; Shemp co-starred in 73 comedies. (The Stooges also co-starred in a George O'Brien western, Gold Raiders, in 1951.) Moe also co-produced occasional western and musical films in the 1950s.
On November 22, 1955, Shemp died of a heart attack, necessitating the need for another Stooge. Producer Jules White used old footage of Shemp to complete four more films, until Moe hired Joe Besser in 1956. Joe, Larry, and Moe filmed 16 shorts through December 1957. With the death of Columbia CEO Harry Cohn, the making of short subjects came to an end, and Howard was forced to take a job as a gofer at Columbia.
Fortunately for the Stooges, Columbia sold the Three Stooges' library of short films to television under the "Screen Gems" brand. With this, the Three Stooges quickly gained a new audience of young fans. Ever the businessman, Moe Howard put together a new Stooges act, with burlesque and screen comic Joe DeRita (dubbed "Curly-Joe" due to his resemblance to Curly Howard) as the new "third Stooge." The revitalized trio starred in several feature-length movies: Have Rocket, Will Travel, Snow White and the Three Stooges, The Three Stooges Meet Hercules, The Three Stooges in Orbit, The Three Stooges Go Around the World in a Daze, and The Outlaws Is Coming!.
Moe, Larry and Curly-Joe continued to make live appearances, many notable "guest appearances", notably in It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World and 4 for Texas. The boys tried their hand at a children's cartoon show titled The New 3 Stooges, with the cartoons sandwiched between live action segments of the boys. However, by 1965, the three had aged too much to continue performing slapstick comedy. They did receive royalties from their features with Curly-Joe, and income from the volume of Three Stooges merchandising.
Moe sold real estate when his show-business life slowed down, although he still did minor roles and walk-on bits (Don't Worry, We'll Think of a Title, Dr. Death: Seeker of Souls), television appearances (Here's Hollywood, Toast of the Town, Masquerade Party, and several appearances on The Mike Douglas Show). The Stooges also made several appearances on late night television, particularly The Tonight Show.
The Stooges attempted to make a final film in 1969, Kook's Tour, which was essentially an early "reality TV" show of Moe, Larry and Curly-Joe, out of character, touring the country and interacting with fans. On January 8, 1970, Larry suffered a major stroke during filming, and died on January 24, 1975, at age 72. Moe asked long-time Three Stooges supporting actor Emil Sitka to replace Larry but this final lineup never recorded any material before Moe's death on May 4, 1975, just a month shy of his 78th birthday.
Moe and the Three Stooges received a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on August 30, 1983, at 1560 Vine Street.