Sunday, September 30, 2007

Anne Perry (born October 28, 1938), born Juliet Hulme in England, is a British historical novelist and convicted murderer (see also Parker-Hulme murder).

Early life

Main article: Parker-Hulme murderAnne Perry Murder and trial
After being released from prison, Juliet returned to England and became a flight attendant. For a period she lived in the United States, where she joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. She later settled in the Scottish village of Portmahomack where she lived with her mother. Her father went on to a distinguished scientific career, heading the British hydrogen bomb programme.
Juliet took the name "Anne Perry", the latter being her step-father's surname. Her first novel, The Cater Street Hangman, was published under this name in 1979. Her works generally fall into one of several categories of genre fiction, including historical mystery novels and fantasy. Many of them feature a number of recurring characters, most importantly Thomas Pitt, who appeared in her first novel, and amnesiac police inspector William Monk, who first appeared in her 1990 novel The Face of a Stranger. As of 2003 she had published 47 novels, and several collections of short stories. Her story "Heroes", which first appeared the 1999 anthology Murder and Obsession, edited by Otto Penzler, won the 2001 Edgar Award for Best Short Story.
In March 2006, Perry said that while her relationship with Pauline Parker was obsessive, they were not lesbians, as (arguably) portrayed in the film Heavenly Creatures. Pauline (under another name) still lives in New Zealand. She and Anne are not believed to have had any contact since their trial, as required by the conditions of their release. (NZ Herald). Recently Perry was included as an entry in Ben Peek's Twenty-Six Lies/One Truth, a novel exploring the nature of truth in literature.

New life
Each series is listed in internal chronological order, according to the author's website [1].


The Face of a Stranger
A Dangerous Mourning
Defend and Betray
A Sudden, Fearful Death
The Sins of the Wolf
Cain His Brother
Weighed in the Balance
The Silent Cry
A Breach of Promise
The Twisted root
Slaves of Obsession
Funeral in Blue
Death of a Stranger
The Shifting Tide
Dark Assassin Featuring William Monk

The Cater Street Hangman (1979)
Callander Square (1980)
Paragon Walk (1981)
Resurrection Row (1981)
Bluegate Fields (1984)
Rutland Place (1983)
Death in Devil's Acre (1985)
Cardington Crescent (1987)
Silence in Hanover Close (1988)
Bethlehem Road (1990)
Highgate Rise (1991)
Belgrave Square (1992)
Farrier's Lane (1993)
The Hyde Park Headsman (1994)
Traitors Gate (1995)
Pentecost Alley (1996)
Ashworth Hall (1997)
Brunswick Gardens (1998)
Bedford Square (1999)
Half Moon Street (1998)
The Whitechapel Conspiracy (2001)
Southampton Row (2002)
Seven Dials (2003)
Long Spoon Lane (2005)
African Passage (due April 7, 2008) Featuring Thomas Pitt

No Graves As Yet
Shoulder the Sky
Angels in the Gloom
At some Disputed Barricade (October 2006 UK. 18th March 2007, USA)
We Shall Not Sleep (10th April,2007, USA) The World War 1 series

A Christmas Journey
A Christmas Visitor
A Christmas Guest (Winter 2006)
A Christmas Secret © 2006 The Christmas stories

Come Armageddon
A Dish Taken Cold
Death By Dickens (Short stories by various authors)
Death by Horoscope (Short stories by various authors)
I'd Kill For That (One novel written by various authors)
The One Thing More
Letter From The Highlands
Much Ado About Murder (Short stories by various authors)

Saturday, September 29, 2007

Philadelphia accent
The Philadelphia accent is the accent of English spoken in Philadelphia and extending into Philadelphia's suburbs in the Delaware Valley and southern New Jersey. It is one of the best-studied dialects of American English due to the fact that Philadelphia's University of Pennsylvania is the home institution of William Labov, one of the most productive American sociolinguists. Unlike the dialects found in much of the rest of Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia accent shares several unusual features with the New York accent, although it is a distinct dialect region. The Philadelphia accent is, however, in most respects the same as the accents of Wilmington, Delaware and Baltimore, together with which it constitutes what Labov describes as the Mid-Atlantic States dialect region.
Actual Philadelphia accents are seldom heard nationally (Philadelphia natives who attain national prominence usually make an effort to tone down or eliminate distinctive pronunciations that would sound dissonant to non-natives). Movies and television shows set in the Philadelphia region generally make the mistake of imbuing the characters with a working class New York accent (specifically heard in Philly-set movies such as the Rocky series and A History of Violence) that is unlike how Philadelphians actually speak. A contrary example is the character of Lynn Sear (played by Toni Collette) in The Sixth Sense, who speaks with an accurate Philadelphia accent.
The use of geographically inaccurate accents is also true in movies and television programs set in Atlantic City (or any other region of South Jersey), where the characters are often imbued with a supposed "Joisey" accent, when in reality the New York-influenced dialect for New Jersey natives is almost always exclusive to the extreme northeastern region of the state nearest New York City. The dialect and accent for speakers in South Jersey is vastly similar to that of Philadelphians.
The precise realizations of features of the Philadelphia accent vary to some degree among different ethnic groups, social classes, and parts of the Philadelphia region. The general phonological features of the accent, however, are as follows:

Philadelphia is resistant to the cot-caught merger because the vowel phoneme of words like caught, cloth, and dawn is raised to a high [ɔ], increasing its distance from the [ɑ] of cot. Philadelphia shares this feature with New York and southern New England.
On is pronounced /ɔn/, so that, as in the South and Midland varieties of American English (and unlike New York and the northern U.S.) it rhymes with dawn rather than don.
The interjection "yo" was popularized (and possibly originated in its current meaning) in Philadelphia dialect among Italian American and African American Philadelphians. Today, Philadelphia natives in general are known to commonly use the interjection.
The words foreign, Oregon, origin, Florida, forest, horrible, quarrel, warren, and warranty are often pronounced with /ɑr/ rather than the /ɔr/ used in General American.
Both long -e and long -a sounds are shortened before -g. Eagle rhymes with "Iggle". League rhymes with big. Vague and plague rhyme with Peg. For some Philadelphians, colleague and fatigue also rhyme with big. But these are words learned later, so many use the standard American "coleeg" and "fateeg."
Many Philadelphians use the dark l in all positions.
Most Philadelphians have at least a little of an sh-sound instead of s-, especially before consonants.
In words like gratitude, beautiful, and prostitute, the "i" is pronounced with a long "ee" sound ([i]).

Friday, September 28, 2007

Anna Jarvis
A. Jarvis was the name of two women, mother and daughter.
Ann Maria Reeves Jarvis (September 30, 1832 - May 9, 1905) was born in Culpeper, Virginia. Jarvis worked around what is now West Virginia to promote worker health and safety concerns. During the American Civil War she organized women to tend to the needs of the wounded of both sides. After the war she became active in the promotion of Mother's Day, a holiday at that time involved with the causes of pacifism and social activism. She organized meetings of mothers of soldiers of both sides of the late war.
Her daughter Anna Marie Jarvis (May 1, 1864 - November 24, 1948) was born in Webster, Taylor County, West Virginia. Her family moved to Grafton, West Virginia in her childhood. Two years after her mother's death she held a memorial to her mother on May 12, 1907, and then went on a quest to make Mother's Day a recognized holiday. She succeeded in making this nationally recognized in 1914. The International Mother's Day Shrine still stands today in Grafton as a symbol of her accomplishments.
By the 1920s, Anna Marie Jarvis had become soured on the commercialization of the holiday. She incorporated herself as the Mother's Day International Association, claimed copyright on the second Sunday of May, and was once arrested for disturbing the peace. She and her sister Ellsinore spent their family inheritance campaigning against the holiday. Both died in poverty. Jarvis, says her New York Times obituary, became embittered because too many people sent their mothers a printed greeting card. As she said, "A printed card means nothing except that you are too lazy to write to the woman who has done more for you than anyone in the world. And candy! You take a box to Mother--and then eat most of it yourself. A pretty sentiment!"

Ann Maria Reeves Jarvis died in Philadelphia, appreciated as the mother of Mothers Days.
Anna Marie Jarvis died in West Chester, Pennsylvania, recognized as the founder of the Mother's Day holiday in the United States of America.

Thursday, September 27, 2007

This article is about the German city of Potsdam. There is also Potsdam, New York, in the United States of America.
For the Potsdam Conference, see Potsdam Conference.
Potsdam [ˈpɔtsdam] is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. It is situated on the Havel River, southwest of Berlin. It is a part of the Metropolitan area Berlin/Brandenburg.
Potsdam is known as the former residence of the Prussian kings until 1918. The city features a series of interconnected lakes and unique cultural landscapes, in particular the parks and palaces of Sanssouci, the largest World Heritage Sites in Germany.
The Potsdam district of Babelsberg also serves as one of the leading centers of European film production. The Filmstudio Babelsberg has significant historical value as the oldest large-scale film studio in the world. The Deutsches Filmorchester Babelsberg frequently records soundtracks for domestic and foreign-based film productions.
The city developed into a center of science in Germany since the 19th century. Today there are 3 public colleges and more than 30 research-institutes in Potsdam.


Potsdam Politics
Potsdam has had a mayor (Bürgermeister) and city council since the fifteenth century. From 1809 the city council was elected, with a mayor (Oberbürgermeister) at its head. In the Third Reich the mayor was selected by the NSDAP and the city council dissolved; it was reconstituted in token form after the Second World War, but free elections did not take place until after reunification.
Today the city council is the central administrative organ of the city. The last local elections took place on 26 October 2003, with the next in 2008. From 1990 to 1999 the Chairman of the city council was known as the "town president". Today this person is called simply the "chairman of the city council". The mayor is elected directly. In the last mayoral election, on 22 September 2002, no candidate gained an overall majority, and a run-off election was held between Jann Jakobs (SPD) and Hans-Jürgen Scharfenberg (PDS), with Jann Jakobs gaining the narrowest of victories, with 50.1%.
The Landtag Brandenburg, the parliament of the federal state of Brandenburg is situated in the capital Potsdam. It is planned to move into the building of the Potsdam City Palace, after the end of the reconstruction in 2011.

Potsdam has city partnerships with the following cities:

Education and research
Potsdam was historically a centre of European immigration. Its religious tolerance attracted people from France, Russia, the Netherlands, and Bohemia. This is still visible in the culture and architecture of the city.
The attraction that draws most visitors to Potsdam is Park Sanssouci, 2 km west of the city centre. In 1744 King Frederick the Great ordered the construction of a residence here, where he could live sans souci ("without worries", in the French spoken at the court). The park hosts many magnificent buildings:
The Old Market Square (Alter Markt) is Potsdam's historical centre. For three centuries this was the site of the City Palace (Stadtschloß), a royal palace built in 1662. Under Frederick the Great, the palace became the winter residence of the Prussian kings. The palace was severely damaged by bombing in 1945 and demolished in 1961 by the Communist authorities. In 2002 the Gate of Fortune (Fortunaportal) was rebuilt in its original historic position, which marks the first step in the reconstruction of the palace. The Old Market Square is dominated today by the dome of the Nicolas Church (Nikolaikirche), built in 1837 in the classical style. It was the last work of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, who designed the building but did not live to see its completion. It was finished by his disciples Friedrich August Stüler and Ludwig Persius. The eastern side of the Market Square is dominated by the Old City Hall (Altes Rathaus), built in 1755 by the Dutch architect Jan Bouman (1706-1776). It has a characteristic circular tower, crowned with a gilded Atlas bearing the world on his shoulders.
North of the Old Market Square is the oval French Church (Französische Kirche), erected in the 1750s by Boumann for the Huguenot community, and the Brandenburg Gate (built in 1770, not to be confused with the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin).
Another landmark of Potsdam is the two-street Dutch Quarter (Holländisches Viertel), an ensemble of buildings that is unique in Europe, with about 150 houses built of red bricks in the Dutch style. It was built between 1734 and 1742 under the direction of Jan Bouman to be used by Dutch craftsmen who had been invited to settle here by King Frederick Wilhelm I. Today this area is one of Potsdam's most visited neighborhoods.
North of the city center is the Russian colony Alexandrowka, a small enclave of Russian architecture (including an Orthodox chapel) built in 1825 for a group of Russian immigrants. Since 1999 the colony has been a UNESCO world heritage site.
East of the Alexandrowka colony is a large park, the New Garden (Neuer Garten), which was laid out beginning in 1786 in the English style. The site contains two palaces—one of them, the Palace Cecilienhof, where the Potsdam Conference was held in July and August, 1945. The Marble Palace was built in 1789 in the style of Classicism.
Another interesting area of Potsdam is Babelsberg, a quarter east of the centre, housing the UFA film studios (Babelsberg Studios), and an extensive park with some interesting buildings, including the Babelsberg Palace (Schloß Babelsberg, a neo-Gothic palace designed by Schinkel). The Einstein Tower was built between 1920 and 1924 by architect Erich Mendelsohn on the top of the Telegraphenberg.
There are many parks in Potsdam, most of them belonging to UNESCO World Heritage sites. Some of them are:
The Belvedere near Park Sanssouci
View from Park Babelsberg to Berlin.
The Chinese House
Castle of Babelsberg
The Sanssouci Palace (Schloss Sanssouci), a relatively modest palace of the Prussian royal and German imperial family
The Orangery Palace (Orangerieschloss), former palace for foreign royal guests
The New Palace (Neues Palais), built between 1763 and 1769 to celebrate the end of the Seven Years' War, in which Prussia ousted Austria from its centuries-long role as the dominant power in German affairs. It is a much larger and grander palace than Sanssouci, having over 200 rooms and 400 statues as decoration. It served as a guest house for numerous royal visitors.
The Charlottenhof Palace (Schloss Charlottenhof), a Neoclassical palace by Karl Friedrich Schinkel built in 1826
The Roman Baths (Römische Bäder), built by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Ludwig Persius in 1829-1840. It is a complex of buildings including a tea pavilion, a Renaissance-style villa, and a Roman bathhouse (from which the whole complex takes its name).
The Chinese Tea House (Chinesisches Teehaus), an eighteenth-century pavilion built in a Chinese style, which was the fashion of the time.

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

Royal Guelphic Order
The Royal Guelphic Order, sometimes also referred to as the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, was a British order of chivalry instituted on 28 April 1815 by the Prince Regent (later George IV). It has not been conferred by the British Crown since the death of King William IV in 1837, when the personal union of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended. It has however continued to be conferred by the Kingdom of Hanover as an independent state and subsequently after the defeat and forced dissolution of the Kingdom of Hanover by the Kingdom of Prussia to be awarded by the Royal House of Hanover. Prince Ernst August married to Princess Caroline of Monaco is still able to award this honour in his capacity as Head of the Royal House of Hanover. The honour is named after the House of Guelph to which the Hanoverian kings belonged, and its insignia were based on the white horse of that kingdom's arms.
The Order included two Divisions, Civil and Military. Its three classes, in descending order of seniority, were:

Knight Grand Cross (GCH)
Knight Commander (KCH)
Knight (KH)

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.


David Scott (flew on Gemini 8, Apollo 9, Apollo 15), commander
Alfred Worden (flew on Apollo 15), command module pilot
James Irwin (flew on Apollo 15), lunar module pilot Backup crew

Gerald Carr (flew on Skylab 4)
Edward Gibson (flew on Skylab 4)
Paul Weitz (flew on Skylab 2, STS-6) Apollo 12 Support crew

Gerald Griffin, Gold team
Pete Frank, Orange team
Cliff Charlesworth, Green team
Milton Windler, Maroon team Flight directors

Landing Site: W 3.01239 S - 23.42157 W or 3° 0' 44.60" S - 23° 25' 17.65" W Mission parameters

Undocked: November 19, 1969 – 04:16:02 UTC
Redocked: November 20, 1969 – 17:58:20 UTC Apollo 12 LM — CSM docking


Conrad — EVA 1
Stepped onto Moon: 11:44:22 UTC
LM ingress: 15:27:17 UTC
Bean — EVA 1
Stepped onto Moon: 12:13:50 UTC
LM ingress: 15:14:18 UTC EVA 1 start: November 19, 1969, 11:32:35 UTC

Duration: 3 hours, 56 minutes, 03 seconds EVA 1 end: November 19, 15:28:38 UTC

Conrad — EVA 2
Stepped onto Moon: 03:59:00 UTC
LM ingress: 07:42:00 UTC
Bean — EVA 2
Stepped onto Moon: 04:06:00 UTC
LM ingress: 07:30:00 UTC EVA 2 start: November 20, 1969, 03:54:45 UTC

Duration: 3 hours, 49 minutes, 15 seconds Quotations
Shortly after lift-off from Kennedy Space Center, the Saturn V rocket body was hit by a bolt of upper-atmosphere lightning. The CM's instruments momentarily went off-line and Mission Control lost the telemetry feeds from the spacecraft for several seconds. When ground control regained telemetry lock with the spacecraft, the feeds were garbled and reported incomplete and possibly inaccurate information. EECOM John Aaron thought that the garbled telemetry might be caused by a malfunction in the launch vehicle's Signal Conditioning Equipment (SCE), since the SCE converted raw instrument data into forms usable by spacecraft instrument displays and ground telemetry equipment (source), and it would have automatically gone off-line in response to the kind of disruption to the spacecraft's electrical systems that a lightning strike would cause (source).
With this in mind, Aaron suggested the crew "Try SCE to aux" – thereby forcing the SCE to switch over to its auxiliary power source and bringing the SCE back on-line. The command was a relatively obscure one and neither the Flight Director, CAPCOM, or Mission Commander Conrad could immediately recall how to implement it; however, lunar module pilot Al Bean remembered that the SCE switch was on his panel because of a training incident a year prior to launch where just such a failure had been simulated. Aaron's quick thinking and Bean's memory were able to salvage what otherwise would have been an aborted mission (at the time of the failure, the flight had just entered abort mode One Bravo). With telemetry restored, the crew proceeded to parking orbit and was able to fully restore and verify the functionality of their spacecraft before re-igniting the S-IVB third stage for trans-lunar injection.
The S-IVB was originally intended to be put into a solar orbit by venting the remaining propellant. However, an extra long burn of the ullage motors meant that venting the remaining propellant in the tank of the S-IVB did not give the rocket stage enough energy to escape the Earth-Moon system and instead the stage ended up in a semi-stable orbit around the Earth after passing by the Moon in November 18, 1969. It finally entered into solar orbit 1971, but returned to Earth orbit (briefly) 31 years later. It was discovered by amateur astronomer Bill Yeung and he gave it the temporary designation J002E3 before it was determined to be an artificial object.
The Apollo 12 mission landed on an area of the Ocean of Storms that had been visited earlier by several unmanned missions (Luna 5, Surveyor 3, and Ranger 7). The International Astronomical Union, recognizing this, christened this region Mare Cognitium (Known Sea). The landing site would thereafter be listed as Statio Cognitium on lunar maps (Conrad and Bean did not formally name their landing site, interestingly enough, though the intended touchdown point was nicknamed Pete's Parking Lot by Conrad).
The second lunar landing was an exercise in precision targeting. The descent was automatic, with only a few manual corrections by Conrad. Although Apollo 11 had made an almost embarrassingly imprecise landing well outside the designated target area, Apollo 12 succeeded, on November 19, in making a pin-point landing, within walking distance (less than 200 meters) of the Surveyor 3 probe, which had landed on the Moon in April 1967.
Conrad actually landed Intrepid 580 feet short of Pete's Parking Lot because the planned landing point looked rougher than anticipated during the final approach to touchdown. The planned landing point was a little under 1180 feet from Surveyor 3, a distance that was chosen to eliminate the possibility of lunar dust (being kicked up by Intrepid's descent engine during landing) from covering Surveyor 3. But the actual touchdown point — 600 feet from Surveyor 3 — did cause a thin film of dust to coat the probe, giving it a light tan hue.
To improve the quality of television pictures from the Moon, a color camera was carried on Apollo 12 (unlike the monochrome camera that was used on Apollo 11). Unfortunately, when Bean carried the camera to the place near the lunar module where it was to be set up, he inadvertently pointed it directly into the Sun, destroying the vidicon tube. Television coverage of this mission was thus terminated almost immediately.
Conrad and Bean removed pieces of the Surveyor 3, to be taken back to Earth for analysis, and took two Moon-walks lasting just under four hours each. It is widely claimed that a common bacterium, Streptococcus mitis, was found to have accidentally contaminated the spacecraft's camera prior to launch and survived dormant in this harsh environment for two and a half years [1]. However, this claim is no longer taken seriously by NASA (see Myth of Streptococcus mitis on the moon).
Astronauts Conrad and Bean also collected rocks and set up equipment that took measurements of the Moon's seismicity, solar wind flux and magnetic field, and relayed the measurements to Earth. (By accident Bean left several rolls of exposed film on the lunar surface.) Meanwhile Gordon, on board the Yankee Clipper in lunar orbit, took multispectral photographs of the surface.
The lunar plaque attached to the descent stage of Intrepid is unique in that unlike the other lunar plaques, it (a) did not have a depiction of the Earth, and (b) it was textured differently (the other plaques had black lettering on polished stainless steel while the Apollo 12 plaque had the lettering in polished stainless steel while the background was brushed flat).
Intrepid's ascent stage was dropped (per normal procedures) after Conrad and Bean rejoined Gordon in orbit. It impacted the Moon on 20 November 1969 at 3.94 S, 21.20 W. The seismometers the astronauts had left on the lunar surface registered the vibrations for more than an hour.
The crew stayed an extra day in lunar orbit taking photographs, for a total lunar stay of thirty-one and a half hours.
Yankee Clipper landed on 24 November 1969, at 20:58 UTC (3:58pm EST, 10:58am HST), approximately 500 miles (800 km) east of American Samoa. During landing, a 16 mm camera dislodged from storage and struck Bean in the forehead, rendering him briefly unconscious. He suffered a mild concussion, and needed six stitches.
The Yankee Clipper is displayed at the Virginia Air and Space Center, Hampton, Virginia. Its recovery ship, the USS Hornet, is now open to the public as a museum in Alameda, California.
The Surveyor 3 camera retrieved by the Apollo 12 astronauts now resides in the Exploring the Planets gallery at the National Air and Space Museum.

Mission highlights

Alan Bean smuggled a camera-shutter self-timer device on to the mission with the intent of taking a photograph with himself, Pete Conrad and the Surveyor 3 probe in the frame. As the timer was not part of their standard equipment, such an image would have thrown post-mission photo analysts into confusion over how the photo was taken. However, the self-timer was misplaced during the EVA and the plan was never executed.
The Apollo 12 backup crew managed to 'insert' into the astronaut's lunar checklist (attached to the wrists of Conrad's and Bean's spacesuits) reduced sized pictures of Playboy centerfolds, thus introducing pornography to the moon for the first time when Conrad and Bean were looking through the lists during their first EVA. A PDF with the photocopies of their cuff checklists on the Lunar Surface Journal website still have these photos. [2] The checklists also contained a page of pre-prepared complex geological terminology at the back, to be used for the confusion of the ground crew.
Another idea that did not materialize was that Conrad — who loved collecting baseball caps — had a giant one made that would fit over his space helmet. He wanted to wear it during his lunar EVAs, but there was no way that it could be smuggled on board Apollo 12 without its being discovered. Attempted Stunts
The Apollo 12 mission patch shows the crew's Navy background. It features a clipper ship arriving at the moon. The ship trails fire and flies the flag of the United States. The mission name APOLLO XII and the crew names are on a wide gold border, with a small blue trim. Blue and gold are traditionally Navy colors. The patch has four stars on it — one each for the three astronauts who flew the mission and one for Clifton Williams. Williams was killed on October 5, 1967, after a mechanical failure caused the controls of his T-38 trainer to stop responding. He had been assigned to the back-up crew for what would be the Apollo 9 mission and would have most likely been assigned as Lunar Module pilot for Apollo 12.

Depiction in fiction

Extra-vehicular activity
List of spacewalks
List of artificial objects on the Moon
Google Moon

Monday, September 24, 2007

Little France
Little France is a suburb of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It is on the A7.
The area falls within the parish of Liberton, and acquired its name from members of the entourage brought to Scotland from France by Mary Queen of Scots who took up residence there.
Little France is the location of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, and is adjacent to Craigour which is just to its south.

Sunday, September 23, 2007

Jean Picard
Jean-Felix Picard (July 21, 1620July 12, 1682) was a French astronomer and priest born in La Flèche, where he studied at the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand. He was the first person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy in a survey conducted 1669-70, for which he is honored with a pyramid at Juvisy-sur-Orge. Guided by Maurolycus' and methodology and Snell's equipment design for doing so, Picard achieved this by measuring one degree of latitude along the Paris Meridian using triangulation along thirteen triangles stretching from Paris to the clocktower of Sourdon, near Amiens. His measurements produced a result of 110.46 km for one degree of latitude, which gives a corresponding terrestrial radius of 6328.9 km. The polar radius has now been measured at just over 6357 km. This was an error only 0.44% less than the modern value. This was another example of advances in astronomy and its tools making possible advances in cartography. It is entirely possible that the Star Trek: The Next Generation character Captain Jean-Luc Picard may have been named after this famous astronomer. Indeed, the fictitious Picard was the captain of a starship, which makes his relation with his namesake unsurprising.

Saturday, September 22, 2007

Elizabeth Ann Guttman (born September 11, 1961), better known by her stage names of Elizabeth Daily and E.G. Daily, is an American voice actress, actress, singer, songwriter, and musician .

Early life and acting career
Daily also signed with A&M Records in 1985, and it was in 1986 that the label released the R&B/Rock single "Say It, Say It". The song only made it to #70 on Billboard Hot 100, but claimed the #1 spot on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart. Her songs "Shake It Up" and "I'm Hot Tonight" were included in the soundtrack to the film Scarface. Those same songs were later included in the lineup of fictional radio station Flashback 95.6 in the Grand Theft Auto III video game. These same songs were also included in the Scarface:The World Is Yours video game, which is based on the 1983 film.
She also had a top 10 hit in 1987 with the song "Mind Over Matter" which is featured in the movie Summer School. The song was originally meant for the rock group Blondie but due to legal circumstances the group dropped out and the song with to Elizabeth instead. Kelly Ripa can be seen featured on the now defunct dance show Dance Party USA lip synching the song to the audience in one of the many featured dancers routines. Daily plays instruments as well as sings. She plays guitar, harmonica, keyboards, and percussion. In her 1988 song, "Some People", she plays guitar and harmonica. Other singers had to join in because Elizabeth cannot sing and play the harmonica at the same time.

Elizabeth Daily Singing career
Daily was married to Rick Salomon from 1995 — 2000. They have two daughters, Hunter (b. 1996) and Tyson (b. 1998). She dated among others; Jon-Erik Hexum, George Clooney, Nicolas Cage, Kato Kaelin, and Andrew "Dice" Clay.


List of number-one dance hits (United States)
List of artists who reached number one on the US Dance chart

Friday, September 21, 2007

Economy of Honduras
Economy of Honduras is the measure of economic activity in Honduras. It is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. The economy is based mostly on agriculture, which accounted for 22% of its gross domestic product (GDP) in 1999. Leading export coffee ($340 million) accounted for 22% of total Honduran export revenues. Bananas, formerly the country's second-largest export until being virtually wiped out by 1998's Hurricane Mitch, recovered in 2000 to 57% of pre-Mitch levels. Cultivated shrimp are another important export sector.
Honduras has extensive forest, marine, and mineral resources, although widespread slash and burn agricultural methods continue to destroy Honduran forests. Unemployment is estimated at around 28%. The Honduran economy grew 4.8% in 2000, recovering from the Mitch-induced recession (-1.9%) of 1999. The Honduran maquiladora sector, the third-largest in the world, continued its strong performance in 2000, providing employment to over 120,000 and generating more than $528 million in foreign exchange for the country. Inflation, as measured by the consumer price index, was 10.1% in 2000, down slightly from the 10.9% recorded in 1999. The country's international reserve position continued to be strong in 2000, at slightly over $1 billion. Remittances from Hondurans living abroad (mostly in the U.S.) rose 28% to $410 million in 2000. The lempira (currency) was devaluing for many years but stabilized at L19 to the US dollar in 2005. The minimum wage is USD150 a month.
The country signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) -- later converted to a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) with the International Monetary Fund in March 1999. While Honduras continues to maintain stable macroeconomic policies, it has lagged in implementing structural reforms, such as privatization of the publicly owned telephone and energy distribution companies. Honduras received significant debt relief in the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch, including the suspension bilateral debt service payments and bilateral debt reduction by the Paris Club -- including the U.S. -- worth over $400 million. In July 2000, Honduras reached its decision point under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC), qualifying the country for interim multilateral debt relief.

GDP purchasing power parity - $22.13 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.2% (2006)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector

  • agriculture 13.6%
    industry 31.4%
    services 55% (1998 est.)
    Population below poverty line 53% (1993 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share

    • lowest 10% consume 0.6%
      highest 10% consume 42.7% (1998)
      Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.7% (2006 est.)
      Labor force 2.589 million (2006 est.)
      Labor force - by occupation agriculture 34%, industry 23%, services 43% (2003 est.)
      Unemployment rate 27.9% (1999); underemployed 30% (1997 est.)

      • revenue $980 million
        expenditures $1.15 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
        Industries bananas, sugar, coffee, textiles, clothing, wood products
        Industrial production growth rate 9% (1992 est.)
        Electricity - production 2,904 GWh (1998)
        Electricity - production by source

        • fossil fuel 34.44%
          hydro 65.56%
          nuclear 0%
          Electricity - consumption 2,742 GWh (1998)
          Electricity - exports 16 GWh (1998)
          Electricity - imports 57 GWh (1998)
          Agriculture - products bananas, coffee, citrus; beef; timber; shrimp
          Exports $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
          Exports - commodities coffee, bananas, shrimp, lobster, meat; zinc, lumber
          Exports - partners US 73%, Japan 4%, Germany 4%, Belgium, Spain (1998)
          Imports $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
          Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs
          Imports - partners US 60%, Guatemala 5%, Netherlands Antilles, Japan, Germany, Mexico, El Salvador (1998)
          Debt - external $4.4 billion (1999)
          Economic aid - recipient $557.8 million (1999)
          Currency 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos
          Exchange rates lempiras (L) per US$1 - 19.00 (October 2005), 14.5744 (January 2000), 14.5039 (1999), 13.8076 (1998), 13.0942 (1997), 12.8694 (1996), 10.3432 (1995) .... 1.00 (1980)

Thursday, September 20, 2007

Glossolalia is commonly called "speaking in tongues". For other uses of "speaking in tongues", see Speaking in Tongues (disambiguation).
"Tongues" redirects here. For the body part, see Tongue, for other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation).
Glossolalia (from Greek glossa γλώσσα "tongue, language" and lalô λαλώ "speak, speaking") is the practice of making unintelligible utterances, often as part of religious practices. Frederic William Farrar first used the word glossolalia in 1879.
Xenoglossy "the phenomenon of uttering intelligible words of a language unknown to the speaker" which some authors use interchangeably with glossolalia meaning "speak in tongues", while others use it to differentiate whether or not the utterances are intelligible as a natural language.
While occurrences of glossolalia are widespread and well documented, there is considerable debate within religious communities (principally Christian) and elsewhere as to both its status (the extent to which glossolalic utterances can be considered to form language), and its source (whether glossolalia is a natural, supernatural, or spiritual phenomenon).
The origin of the modern charismatic Christian concept of speaking in tongues is the miracle of Pentecost, recounted in the New Testament book of Acts, in which Jesus' apostles were said to be filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke in languages foreign to themselves, but which could be understood by members of the linguistically diverse audience.

New Testament
Twentieth-century Pentecostalism was not the earliest instance of "speaking in tongues" in church history; rather, there were antecedents in several centuries of the Christian era, e.g.

150 AD - Justin Martyr wrote "For the prophetical gifts remain with us, even to this present time." . Irving further stated that "tongues are a great instrument for personal edification, however mysterious it may seem to us." Church history
The modern practice of glossolalia is often said to have originated around the beginning of the twentieth century in the United States. The city of Topeka, Kansas is often cited as the center of the Pentecostal movement and the resurgence of glossolalia in the Church. Charles Fox Parham, a holiness preacher and founder of Bethel Bible College in 1900, is given the credit to being the one who influenced modern Pentecostalism. During what has been called a sermon by Parham, a bold student named Agnes Ozman asked him for prayer and the laying on of hands to specifically ask God to fill her with the Holy Spirit. This was the night of New Year's Eve, 1900. She became the first of many students to experience glossolalia, coincidentally in the first hours of the twentieth century. Parham followed within the next few days, and before the end of January 1901, glossolalia was being discussed in newspapers as a sign of the second advent of Pentecost.
Parham now found himself as the leader of the movement and traveled to church meetings around the country to preach [in the terminology of that era] about holiness, divine healing, healing by faith, the laying on of hands and prayer, sanctification by faith, and the signs of baptism of the Holy Ghost and Fire, the most prominent being speaking in tongues.

Contemporary Christian
The discussion regarding tongues has permeated many branches of the Christian Church, particularly since the widespread Charismatic Movement in the 1960s. Many books have been published either defending the practice.
Like almost any other issue, it mostly depends on how centralized a church is, or how much they regulate policy for assemblies and individuals. Most churches fall into one of the following categories of the theological spectrum: 1) pentecostals - believe glossolia is the initial evidence of receipt of the full blessing of the Holy Spirit; 2) charismatics - believe glossolia is not necessarily evidence of salvation, but is edifying and encouraged; 3) cessationalists and dispensationalists believe glossolia is not evidence of salvation, and that most or all authentic miraculous gifts have either ceased abruptly, or were phased out gradually, sometime after the death of the "last" apostle John, and sometime before or around the time the bible was completed and canonised.

Aside from Christians, certain religious groups also have been observed to practice some form of theopneustic glossolalia.
Glossolalia is evident in the renowned ancient Oracle of Delphi, whereby a priestess of the god Apollo (called a sibyl) speaks in unintelligible utterances, supposedly through the spirit of Apollo in her.
Certain Gnostic magical texts from the Roman period have written on them unintelligible syllables like "t t t t t t t t n n n n n n n n n d d d d d d d..." etc. It is believed that these may be transliterations of the sorts of sounds made during glossolalia. The Coptic Gospel of the Egyptians also features a hymn of (mostly) unintelligible syllables which is thought to be an early example of Christian glossolalia.
In the 19th century, Spiritism was developed into a religion of its own thanks to the work of Allan Kardec and the phenomenon was seen as one of the self-evident manifestations of Spirits. Spiritists argued that some cases were actually cases of Xenoglossia (when one speaks in a language unknown to him). However, the importance attributed to it, as well as its frequency, has since decreased significantly. Present-day spiritists regard the phenomenon pointless, as it does not convey any intelligible message to those present.
Glossolalia has also been observed in shamanism and the Voodoo religion of Haiti.

Glossolalia Other religions

Glossolalia Scientific perspectives
The syllables that make up instances of glossolalia typically appear to be unpatterned reorganizations of phonemes from the primary language of the person uttering the syllables; thus, the glossolalia of people from Russia, the United Kingdom, and Brazil all sound quite different from each other, but vaguely resemble the Russian, English, and Portuguese languages, respectively. Many linguists generally regard most glossolalia as lacking any identifiable semantics, syntax, or morphology.

The first scientific study of glossolalia was done by psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin as part of his research into the linguistic behaviour of schizophrenic patients. In 1927, G.B. Cutten published his book Speaking with tongues; historically and psychologically considered, which was regarded a standard in medical literature for many years. Like Kraepelin, he linked glossolalia to schizophrenia and hysteria. In 1972, John Kildahl took a different psychological perspective in his book The Psychology of Speaking in Tongues. He stated that glossolalia was not necessarily a symptom of a mental illness and that glossolalists suffer less from stress. He did observe, however, that glossolalists tend to have more need of authority figures and appeared to have had more crises in their lives.
A 2003 statistical study by the religious journal Pastoral Psychology concluded that, among the 991 male evangelical clergy sampled, glossolalia was associated with stable extraversion, and contrary to some theories, completely unrelated to psychopathology.
Nicholas Spanos described glossolalia as an acquired ability, for which no real trance is needed (Glossolalia as Learned Behavior: An Experimental Demonstration, 1987).

In 2006, at the University of Pennsylvania, researchers, under the direction of Andrew Newberg, MD, completed the world's first brain-scan study of a group of individuals while they were speaking in tongues. The study concluded that while participants were exercising glossolalia, activity in the language centers of the brain actually decreased, while activity in the emotional centers of the brain increased. During this study, researchers observed significant cerebral blood flow changes among individuals while exercising glossolalia, concluding that the observed changes were consistent with some of the described aspects of glossolalia. Further, the researchers observed no changes in any language areas, suggesting that glossolalia is not associated with usual language function. One of the researchers is a practitioner of glossolalia and a self-described "born-again Christian".
New York Times wrote about the study, and it has been published in Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 148, Issue 1, 22 November 2006, Pages 67-71.

See also

Wednesday, September 19, 2007

Anatomical Superficial anatomy

Main article: Human anatomyAnatomical Other branches
General anatomy:
Human anatomy:

List of anatomical topics
Important publications in anatomy
History of anatomy
Superficial anatomy
Anatomical terms of location
Body plan
List of human anatomical features
List of human anatomical parts named after people

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

Doc Pomus
Doc Pomus (June 27, 1925 - March 14, 1991) was an American blues singer and songwriter, active throughout the 20th century. He is best known as the lyricist of many Rock and Roll hits.

Together with Shuman and individually, Doc Pomus was a key figure in the development of popular music. They wrote such hits as Save the Last Dance for Me, This Magic Moment, Sweets for My Sweet, Viva Las Vegas, Little Sister, Surrender, Can't Get Used to Losing You, Suspicion, Turn Me Loose and Mess of Blues.
In 1995, Rhino Records released a tribute album to Pomus titled Till The Night Is Gone. It offers performances of Pomus songs by Bob Dylan, Brian Wilson, Dion, Dr. John, Irma Thomas, Solomon Burke, John Hiatt, Shawn Colvin, Aaron Neville, Lou Reed, The Band, B.B. King, Los Lobos and Rosanne Cash.
Due out in North America in March 2007 from DeCapo Press is the book "Lonely Avenue: The Unlikely Life And Times Of Doc Pomus" by Alex Halberstadt. The book will be released in the U.K. by the Random House imprint Johnathan Cape in June 2007.

Friday, September 14, 2007

Arthur J. Finkelstein Arthur J. Finkelstein (born 1946) is a United States Republican Party political operative. He has directed a series of campaigns, considered to be quite successful, to elect conservatives in the United States and Israel in the past 25 years. He runs Arthur J. Finkelstein and Associates, a political consulting firm based in Irvington, New York, which handles his clients.

Professional history
Finkelstein is known for his hard-edged political campaigns, which often focus on hammering home a single message with great repetition. He is credited with helping to make "liberal" a dirty word in the late 1980s and 1990s by using commercial messages like this, intended to damage Jack Reed's image:
That's liberal. That's Jack Reed. That's wrong. Call liberal Jack Reed and tell him his record on welfare is just too liberal for you.
While often successful, Finkelstein's tactics have sometimes backfired -- such as in 1996, where his repeated attacks against Wellstone had the effect of galvanizing Wellstone's liberal grass-roots base. Republican U.S. Senator Rod Grams had to eventually condemn Finkelstein's negative ads against Wellstone for being excessive.
Finkelstein's early style is described in an account of a Congressional primary race in Arizona (Thomas W. Benson. "Another Shooting in Cowtown." Quarterly Journal of Speech 67 (1981): 347-406.)

Campaign style
Finkelstein has worked for many politicians in a number of positions:

National Liberal Party (Romania)
Former U.S. Senator Jesse Helms
Former U.S. Senator Alfonse D'Amato
Former U.S. Senator Rudy Boschwitz
New York Governor George Pataki
Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan
Former U.S. President Richard Nixon
Former U.S. Senator Bob Dole
Terry Dolan's the National Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC)
Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
Former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon
Former U.S. Senator Lauch Faircloth
Israeli politician Avigdor Lieberman
Former U.S. Senator Don Nickles
Former U.S. Senator Bob Smith
Romanian Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu
Florida Attorney General Bill McCollum
Florida Congressman Connie Mack IV
Time magazine
Scott Paper
Quaker Oats
The Trump Organization
The opponents of the new stadium on the West Side of Manhattan Current and former clients
In 1996, Boston Magazine outed Finkelstein as a homosexual in a feature story. In April 2005, Finkelstein acknowledged that in December, 2004, he had married his long time partner in a civil ceremony at his home in Massachusetts.

In April 2005, Finkelstein organized a political action committee (PAC) called Stop Her Now with the stated goal, "to shed light on the REAL Hillary Clinton and the danger she and her ideas pose for America." The PAC planned to raise ten million dollars to defeat Clinton in the 2006 New York U.S. Senate race, thereby making a potential 2008 presidential run less likely. However, the PAC showed barely any activity [1], had no effect on the Senate race, and Clinton was easily re-elected by a wide margin. After the 2006 election, the PAC and website have since been taken over by Dallas businessman Richard Collins [2].

Happening right now

"Stupid people say stupid things." (Said to the Hebrew language paper Maariv in 1999)

Thursday, September 13, 2007

List of lakes in Russia
List of lakes in Russia in alphabetical order:
See also: Geography of Russia
Baikal (Байкал)
Beloye (Белое)
Brosno (Бросно)
Caspian Sea (Каспийское Море)
Chany (Чаны)
Ilmen (Ильмень)
Imandra (Имандра)
Khanka (Ханка)
Ladoga (Ладожское)
Lovozero (Ловозеро)
Nero (Неро)
Onega (Онежское)
Pleshcheyevo (Плещеево)
Pskovskoye Lake (Чудское)
Segozero (Сегозеро)
Seliger (Селигер)
Taimyr (Таймыр)
Teletskoye (Телецкое)
Topozero (Топозеро)
Uvs Nuur (Увс Нуур)
Valdai Lake (Валдайское)
Vistytis (Виштынецкое озеро)

Wednesday, September 12, 2007

Ingroup bias
Ingroup bias is the preferential treatment people give to whom they perceive to be members of their own groups.
Experiments in psychology have shown that group members will award one another higher payoffs even when the "group" they share seems random and arbitrary, such as having the same birthday, having the same final digit in their U.S. Social Security Number, or even being assigned to the same flip of a coin.
Ingroup effects appear to be stronger, however, when the group is smaller relative to another high-power group.
This cognitive bias has been studied extensively by Henri Tajfel. It is considered a group-serving bias, as opposed to an outgroup homogeneity bias.

Tuesday, September 11, 2007

Racism · Sexism · Ageism · Religious intolerance · Xenophobia
Social Ableism · Adultism · Biphobia · Classism · Elitism · Ephebiphobia · Gerontophobia · Heightism · Heterosexism · Homophobia · Lesbophobia · Lookism · Misandry · Misogyny · Pediaphobia · Sizeism · Transphobia
Americans · Arabs · Armenians · Australians · Canadians · Catalans · Chinese · English · Europeans · French · Germans · Indians · Iranians · Irish · Italians · Japanese · Jews · Malay · Mexicans · Pakistanis · Poles · Portuguese · Quebecers · Roma · Romanians · Russians · Serbs · Turks
Atheism · Bahá'í · Catholicism · Christianity · Hinduism · Judaism · Mormonism · Islam · Neopaganism · Protestantism ·
Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching · Hate speech · Hate crime · Genocide · Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war · Religious persecution · Gay bashing · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Blood libel · Black Legend · Paternalism
Discriminatory Hate groups · Aryanism · Ku Klux Klan · Neo-Nazism · American Nazi Party · South African National Party · Kahanism · Supremacism · Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · LGBT rights · Women's/Universal suffrage · Feminism · Masculism Men's/Fathers rights Children's rights · Youth rights · Disability rights · Inclusion · Autistic rights · Equalism
Discriminatory Race/Religion/Sex segregation · Apartheid · Redlining · Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation · Civil rights · Desegregation · Integration Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action · Racial quota · Reservation · Reparations · Forced busing
Discriminatory Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration · Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws · Black codes · Apartheid laws · Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws Anti-discriminatory List of anti-discrimination acts 14th Amendment
Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism · Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism · Adultcentrism · Isolationism · Gynocentrism · Androcentrism · Economic discrimination
Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism · Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity · Multiculturalism · Political correctness · Reverse discrimination · Eugenics · Racialism · Speciesism
The fat acceptance movement, also the fat liberation movement, is a grassroots effort to change societal attitudes towards individuals who are fat. The movement consists today of a diverse group of people, who have different beliefs about how best to address the perceived widespread prejudice and discrimination against fat people in contemporary Western societies.
Generally dated to the 1970s, the 1980s and 1990s witnessed the increase in activist organizations, publications, and conferences. However, the contemporary movement sees negative societal attitudes as remaining, based upon the idea that fat people pursue affirmative, voluntary practices to maintain their body size and that these practices reflect negative character traits.

The history of this movement is difficult to chart because of its grassroots nature, although it originated in the late 1960s and 1970s. Like other social movements from this time period, the fat acceptance movement, initially known as "Fat Pride," "Fat Power," or "Fat Liberation," often consisted of people acting in an impromptu fashion. To offer one example, a "Fat-in" was staged in New York's Central Park in 1967. The book consists of some activist position papers, initially distributed by the Fat Underground, as well as collections of poems and essays from other writers.

Sizeism History
Fat liberation has been addressed as well in a number of zines, many representing activist communities. Among them are Marilyn Wann's Fat!So? beginning in 1993, Nomy Lamm's I'm So Fucking Beautiful, and the collectively produced 'zine "FaT GiRL -- the 'zine for fat dykes and the women who want them." More Recently, Sabrina Darling has collaborated with other members of the new generation of fat liberation to release the zine Two By Four, Krissy Durden has produced the zine Figure 8 since 2001 and Max Airborne and Cherry Midnight have produced "Size Queen: For Queen-size Queers and Our Loyal Subjects."
In addition to zines, there has recently been a steady stream of books with a fat activist agenda including Wann's book of the same title as her zine (1998), Sondra Solovay's "Tipping the Scales of Justice: Fighting Weight-Based Discrimination" (2000);'Largely Happy -- changing your mind about your body' by Lynda Finn; 'Don't Diet' by Professor Dale Atrens and a collection of short stories by fat people (What Are You Looking At? 2003). Beginning in the earlier literature, there were criticisms of the prevailing scientific view that fat is unhealthy. A number of writers and activists have attacked this viewpoint, including more recently Paul Campos in his 'The Obesity Myth' (2004) republished as 'The Diet Myth', and Sandy Szwarc's in-depth examination of obesity research in the online magazine "Tech Central Station."
In recent years, there is an emerging body of fat political and sociological studies, some with a fat activist agenda, developing within the academy. The American Popular Culture Association has an area in fat studies and regularly includes panels on the subject. In addition, student groups with a fat activist agenda have emerged in a number of colleges including Hampshire, Smith, and Antioch colleges.
Susan Stinson's novels and poetry such as Belly Songs (1993) and Venus of Chalk (2004) have integrated the insights of fat liberation into literature. Several collections of short writing on fat have been published in recent years, including 'What Are You Looking At?: The First Fat Fiction Anthology' (2003); Scoot Over, Skinny: The Fat Nonfiction Anthology' (2005); and Susan Koppelman's Strange History of Suzanne LaFleshe and other stories of women and fatness (2003).
Recently, fat performance art has made an impact in the fight against sizeism. Groups like The Padded Lillies, Big Burlesque and the Fat Bottom Revue and radical cheerleading groups like F.A.T.A.S.S pdx and The Bod Squad have received significant attention, as have drag troups like the Royal Renegades: The Philadelphia Drag Kings, who feature a variety of body types in their shows.
Finally and most recently, there has been a flourishing of national conferences devoted to the subject of fat activism, including NOLOSE, the conference of the former National Organization for Lesbians of SizE (now just known as NOLOSE); NAAFA's annual convention held alternately on the west and east coasts; and the largest conference, Stacy Bias's FatGirl Speaks in Portland, Oregon.

The movement today
As it has expanded, the fat acceptance movement has faced internal issues.
One point of contention in the movement is found between those fat people who are attempting to lose weight and those who are not. Opponents of weight loss attempts cite the high failure rate of all permanent weight loss attempts (95-98%), and the many dangers of "yoyo weight fluctuations" and weight loss surgeries. These people maintain that fat people who exercise regularly and practice sound nutrition are as healthy as or healthier than sedentary people. (There are many citations, starting with Sandy Szwarc's list of links at [1], as well as books by William Bennett, Joel Gurin, Paul Campos, etc. as delineated below. A USDA discussion of the recent U.C. Davis study suggesting that fat acceptance maintains and improves health more than dieting may be found at [2].)
Due to intrinsic linguistic misunderstandings and differing definitions of the word "acceptance," some "fat activists" believe the phrase refers to any fat person fighting for equal rights and opportunities, regardless of whether or not that person believes that the pursuit of reduction in a person's body mass is feasible. Other "fat activists" define "fat acceptance" more strictly, applying that phrase only to fat people who are not pursuing a reduction in their body mass, and use phrases such as "fat activist" to describe fat people and "allies" working more generally on civil rights issues pertaining to fat people.
An additional issue with regard to language is that many in the fat acceptance movement find the terms "obese" and "overweight" offensive, as they are often used to make overtly prejudiced statements seem more clinical or scientific. The word "fat" is generally preferred.
In practice, the only way to know the position of any particular individual member of the group on weight loss attempts is to ask, or read specific position papers on the issue.

Issues within the movement
Fat acceptance advocates' positions have sparked criticism and mockery. Some critics, while acknowledging that fat and obese individuals are subject to inappropriate discrimination or pressure, contend that fat acceptance advocates' goal of unconditional acceptance of obesity is itself unhealthy. They contend that accepting fattness will make people fatter, although no scientific data exists to substantiate this claim. Critics use the charistic of body size as short hand for poor eating habits and sedentry lifestyle, and then contend that large body size causes medical problems. Public health officials regard widespread obesity as posing significant costs to society. Despite advocates' claims to the contrary, some studies show that fat people are more likely than others to be in poor health, at a time when health care costs are rising: in 2006, the CDC estimated that 10 percent of current health care costs are due to obesity [3]. Additionally, the common fat acceptance mantra that "diets don't work" is considered by some critics to be an oversimplification that may discourage even responsible and potentially beneficial changes in eating habits. [4]
In the United Kingdom there is an ongoing debate as to whether or not obese individuals should either pay for their healthcare, or take a back seat in queues for the National Health Service for obesity related illnesses, which are on the rise. Furthermore, they are often required to lose weight so that they can cope with the demands of massive surgery, which undoubtedly puts increased demands on the body, which exceptionally obese persons may physically struggle to recover from. The characteristic of body size is often viewed as a behavior much like smoking or alcohol overuse.


Jo Morley, founder of Big People UK [London, UK]
Stacy Bias, founder of FatGirl Speaks [Portland, ORE]
Paul Campos, author of books such as The Obesity Myth
Charlotte Cooper: London-based writer [5]
Candye Kane, singer, former BBW porn star
Nomy Lamm, performance artist and writer of I'm So Fucking Beautiful
Judy Sullivan, author of Size Wise
Sandy Szwarc, author of Junk Food Science blog and articles challenging widely-held beliefs on fat and health[6]
Pattie Thomas, Ph.D., co-author of Taking Up Space: How Eating Well and Exercising Regularly Changed My Life Sociological memoir about the stigma faced by fat people (written in collaboration with Carl Wilkerson, M.B.A.)blog
Marilyn Wann, author of FAT!SO? and Activism Chair of NAAFA