Wednesday, October 31, 2007

Gustave Charpentier
Gustave Charpentier (June 25, 1860February 18, 1956) was a French composer, best known for his opera Louise.
He was born in Dieuze, the son of a baker, and after studying at the conservatoire in Lille entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1881. There he studied compositions under Jules Massenet and in 1887 won the Prix de Rome for his cantata Didon. During the time in Rome that the prize gave him, he wrote the orchestral Impressions d'Italie and began work on the libretto and music for what would become his best known work, the opera Louise.
Charpentier returned to Paris, and continued to compose, including songs on texts by Charles Baudelaire and Voltaire. He eventually completed Louise, and it was accepted for production by the Opéra-Comique. A realistic portrait of Parisian working-class life, it is sometimes considered a French example of verismo opera.
The premiere of Louise on February 2, 1900 under the baton of André Messager made it the first new opera to be produced at the Opéra-Comique in the twentieth century. It was an immediate success, soon being performed all over the world and bringing Charpentier wide acclaim. It also launched the career of the Scottish soprano Mary Garden, who took over the title role during an early performance. A film version of the work was made in 1939 with Grace Moore in the title role, and Louise is still occasionally performed today, with the soprano aria "Depuis le jour" a popular recital piece.
In 1902, Charpentier founded the Conservatoire Populaire Mimi Pinson, intended to provide a free artistic education to Paris's working girls. However, he became unproductive as a composer. He worked on a sequel to Louise, Julien, ou a live de poète, but it was a not as great a success as Louise on its 1913 premiere, and was quickly forgotten. Charpentier wrote virtually no more music for the rest of his life. He died in Paris.

Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Dutch rijksdaalder
The rijksdaalder was an 18th century Dutch coin worth 2½ gulden or 50 stuiver.
Following decimalization (in 1816), 2½-gulden coins were no longer produced because a 3-gulden coin was thought to better fit in the series of denominations. This turned out to be a mistake (due to the high silver price) and from 1840 onward 2½-gulden coins were produced again. Production stopped in 2002 due to the introduction of the euro. 2½-gulden coins were better known by their nickname rijksdaalder, daalder or knaak.
The Royal Dutch Mint still mints a silver ducat today.
The similarly named Reichsthaler, rixdollar, riksdaler and rigsdaler were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, respectively.

Monday, October 29, 2007

The Ten-Day War, sometimes called the Slovenian War (Slovenian: Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna, "Slovenian Independence War" or desetdnevna vojna "Ten-Day War"), was a brief military conflict between Slovenia and Yugoslavia in 1991 following Slovenia's declaration of independence.

On 23 December 1990, Slovenia held a referendum on independence which passed with 88% of the vote. The Slovenian government was well aware that the federal government in Belgrade might seek to use military force to rein in Slovenia's moves towards independence. Immediately after the Slovenian elections, the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) announced that a new defence doctrine would apply across the country. The Tito-era doctrine of "General People's Defence", in which each republic maintained a territorial defence force (teritorialna obramba or TO), would henceforth be replaced by a centrally-directed system of defence. The republics would lose their role in defence matters and their TOs would be disarmed and subordinated to JNA headquarters in Belgrade.
The Slovenian government resisted these moves, successfully ensuring that the majority of Slovenian TO equipment was kept out of the hands of the JNA. It also declared in a constitutional amendment passed on 28 September 1990 that its TO would be under the sole command of the Slovenian government. At the same time, the Slovenian government set up a secret alternative command structure, known as the Manoeuvre Structures of National Protection (Manevrska struktura narodne zaščite, or MSNZ). This was an existing but antiquated institution, unique to Slovenia, which was intended to enable the republic to form an ad hoc defence structure, akin to a Home Guard. It was of negligible importance prior to 1990, with antiquated weapons and few members. However, the DEMOS-led government realised that the MSNZ could be adapted to provide a parallel organisation to the TO that would be entirely in the hands of the Slovenian government.
When the JNA tried to take control of the Slovenian TO, the TO's command structure was simply replaced by that of the parallel MSNZ. Between May and October 1990, some 21,000 TO and police personnel were secretly mobilised into the MSNZ command structure, of which the federal government was wholly unaware. The Slovenian government also undertook detailed planning of a military campaign against the JNA, which resulted in the production of an operational and tactical plan by November 1990 — over seven months before the conflict actually began.
The Slovenes were well aware that they would not be able to resist the JNA for a very long time. Under Defence Minister Janez Janša, they adopted a strategy based on an asymmetric warfare approach. TO units would carry out a guerrilla campaign, using anti-tank weapons and anti-aircraft missiles to ambush JNA units. Tank columns could be trapped by destroying the lead and rear vehicles in favourable terrain — for instance, on a narrow mountain road where room for manoeuvre was limited – enabling the rest to be tackled more easily. In preparation for this, the Slovenian government covertly bought lightweight missile systems from foreign suppliers, notably the SA-7 Grail (Strela) anti-aircraft missile and the German-designed Armbrust anti-tank system. Hit-and-run and delaying tactics were to be preferred, but frontal clashes were to be avoided; in such situations, the JNA's superior firepower would have been very difficult to overcome.
On the diplomatic front, neither the European Community nor the United States were willing to recognise the independence of Slovenia and strongly advocated the continuation of a unified Yugoslavia. The Slovenian government sought international assistance in negotiating a peaceful breakup of Yugoslavia but was rebuffed by Western countries that said they preferred to deal with a single federation rather than numerous small states. However, the Slovenes contended that they had no choice in pushing for independence, given a perceived lack of commitment to democratic values on the part of the Belgrade authorities.

Preparations for war
Slovenia unexpectedly declared independence on 25 June 1991, although it had previously announced that it would declare independence on 26 June. This "advance" on the date of independence was a critical element of the Slovenian plan to gain an early advantage in the expected conflict. The Slovenian government fully expected the Yugoslav military to respond with force on the day of the declaration of independence or shortly afterwards. By secretly advancing the date by 24 hours, the Slovenians wrongfooted the Yugoslav government, which had set 26 June as the date for its move.

On the morning of 26 June, units of the Yugoslav People's Army's 13th Corps left their barracks in Rijeka, Croatia to move towards Slovenia's borders with Italy. The move immediately led to a strong reaction from local Slovenes, who organised spontaneous barricades and demonstrations against the JNA's actions. There was, as yet, no fighting, and both sides appeared to have an unofficial policy of not being the first to open fire.
By this time, the Slovenian government had already put into action its plan to seize control of the republic's border posts and the international airport at Brnik. The personnel manning the border posts were, in most cases, already Slovenians, so the Slovene take-over mostly simply amounted to changing of uniforms and insignia, without any fighting. This was undertaken, in the words of Janez Janša, to "establish our sovereignty in the key triangle, border-customs-air control." . In addition, by taking control of the borders, the Slovenians were able to establish defensive positions against an expected JNA attack. This meant that the JNA would have to fire the first shots, which would enable the Slovenians to portray the Yugoslav military as aggressors.

26 June 1991
Further JNA troop movements took place in the early hours of 27 June. A unit of the JNA's 306th Anti-Aircraft Regiment, based in Karlovac, Croatia, crossed the Slovenian border at Metlika. A few hours later, a column of tanks and armoured personnel carriers of the JNA 1st Armoured Brigade left their barracks at Vrhnika near the Slovenian capital Ljubljana, heading for the airport at Brnik. They arrived a few hours later and took control of the facilities. It is worth mentioning here that as JNA was the federal army its forces were placed in various places within the federal republics including Slovenia. To the east, JNA units left Maribor heading for the nearby border crossing at Šentilj and the border town of Dravograd further west. Yugoslav Air Force aircraft dropped leaflets over various parts of Slovenia bearing the somewhat contradictory messages "We invite you to peace and cooperation!" and "All resistance will be crushed."
The Slovenian government had received warnings that the JNA would use helicopters to ferry special forces troops to strategic locations. It issued a warning to the JNA's 5th Military Command District in Zagreb that if helicopters continued to be used they would be shot down. The warning was disregarded by the JNA leadership, which still believed that the Slovenians would back down rather than fight. This was, however, a disastrous miscalculation. In the afternoon of 27 June, the Slovenian TO shot down two JNA helicopters over Ljubljana, killing the occupants (one of whom, ironically, was a Slovenian pilot, as JNA's forces consisted of nationals from all the republics).
The TO also took up position around JNA barracks in various locations, effectively besieging them, and launched a series of attacks on JNA forces across Slovenia. At Brnik, a TO unit attacked the JNA troops holding the airport, and at Trzin a firefight developed in which four JNA soldiers and one TO soldier were killed and the remainder of the JNA unit was forced to surrender. Attacks were also launched by Slovenian TO units on JNA tank columns at Pesnica, Ormož and Koseze, near Ilirska Bistrica. A tank column from the JNA's 32nd Mechanised Brigade, advancing from Varaždin in Croatia, was blocked at Ormož near the Slovenian border and found itself unable to break through a Slovenian barricade.
Despite the confusion and fighting, the JNA nonetheless successfully accomplished much of its military mission. By midnight on 27 June it had captured all of the crossings along the Italian border, all but three crossings on the Austrian border and several of the new crossing points established along Slovenia's border with Croatia. However, many of its units were still stuck in vulnerable positions across Slovenia.

27 June 1991
During the night of 2728 June, Slovenian TO units were ordered to undertake a general offensive against the JNA. The Slovenian defence ministry ordered:
At all locations where RS [Republic of Slovenia] armed forces have the tactical advantage, offensive actions against enemy units and facilities will be carried out. The enemy will be summoned to surrender, the shortest deadline possible for surrender given and action taken using all available weapons. While in action, the necessary arrangements will be made to evacuate and protect the civilians.
Further fighting took place throughout the day. The JNA tank column that had been attacked at Pesnica the previous day was blocked by impromptu barricades of Slovenian trucks at Strihovec, a few miles short of the border with Austria, where it again came under attack by TO personnel and Slovenian police. The Yugoslav Air Force mounted two attacks in support of the JNA forces at Strihovec, killing four truck drivers. At Medvedjek in central Slovenia, another JNA tank column came under attack at a truck barricade, where air raids killed six truck drivers. Heavy fighting broke out at Nova Gorica on the border with Italy, where the Slovenian Special Forces destroyed three JNA T-55 tanks and captured three more. Four JNA soldiers were killed and nearly 100 more surrendered.
The border crossing at Holmec was captured by Slovenian forces, with two fatalities on the Slovenian side and three on the JNA side; 91 JNA soldiers were captured. The JNA barracks at Bukovje near Dravograd were attacked by TO units and a JNA weapons depot at Borovnica fell to the Slovenian TO, significantly improving the Slovenians' supply of weapons. The Yugoslav Air Force carried out attacks at a number of locations across the country, most notably at Brnik Airport, where two Austrian journalists were killed and four Adria Airways airliners were seriously damaged. The Air Force also attacked the Slovenian military headquarters at Kočevska Reka and flew sorties against radio and television transmitters at Krim, Kum, Trdinov vrh and Nanos in an attempt to silence the Slovenian government's broadcasts.
By the end of the day, the JNA still held many of its positions but was rapidly losing ground. It was already beginning to suffer problems with desertions — many Slovenian members of the JNA quit their units or simply changed sides - and both the troops on the ground and the leadership in Belgrade appeared to have little idea of what to do next.

28 June 1991
The outbreak of the war galvanised diplomatic efforts by the European Community to find an end to the crisis. Three EC foreign ministers met with Slovenian and Yugoslav government representatives in Zagreb during the night of 28 June-29 June and agreed on a ceasefire plan, but this was not put into practice. In the morning, the Slovenes achieved several significant military successes. The JNA troops at Brnik Airport surrendered to Slovenian TO forces, who had surrounded the facility overnight. In the north, several JNA tanks were captured near Strihovec and later reorganised into a TO tank company. JNA special forces attempted a maritime landing at Hrvatini but were ambushed and repulsed by the Slovenians. The JNA-held border crossings at Vrtojba and Šentilj also fell to the Slovenians, who seized the federal troops' weapons and tanks, providing a much-needed boost to their arsenal.
The JNA issued an ultimatum to Slovenia, demanding an immediate cessation of hostilities by 0900 on 30 June. In response, the Slovenian Assembly adopted a resolution calling for a peaceful solution to the crisis that did not jeopardise Slovenian independence, and rejected the JNA ultimatum.

29 June 1991
Skirmishing continued in several places during the day. Slovenian forces captured the strategic Karavanke Tunnel under the Alps on the border with Austria and captured nine JNA tanks near Nova Gorica. The entire JNA garrison at Dravograd - 16 officers and 400 men, plus equipment — surrendered, and the garrisons at Tolmin and Bovec also fell to the Slovenians. The weapons captured from the garrisons were quickly redistributed to the Slovenian forces.

30 June 1991
More skirmishes took place, with Slovenian forces capturing a JNA facility at Nova Vas, south of Ljubljana. The JNA's ammunition dump at Črni Vrh caught fire and was destroyed in a massive explosion, damaging much of the town. However, the Slovenians successfully captured depots at Pečovnik, Bukovžlak and Zaloška Gorica, taking possession of some 70 truckloads of ammunition and explosives.
The JNA 306th Light Air Defence Artillery Regiment's column retreated from its exposed position at Medvedjek and headed into the Krakovski forest (Krakovski gozd) near the Croatian border. It ran into a blockade near the town of Krško and was surrounded by Slovenian forces, but refused to surrender, probably hoping for help from a relief column.
In the meantime, the JNA's leadership sought permission to change the tempo of its operations. Defence Minister Veljko Kadijević informed the Yugoslav cabinet that the JNA's first plan - a limited operation to secure Slovenia's border crossings had failed, and that it was time to put into operation the backup plan of a full-scale invasion and imposition of military rule in Slovenia. However, the cabinet — headed at the time by Serbia's Borisav Jović — refused to authorise such an operation. The JNA Chief of Staff, General Blagoje Adzić, was furious and publicly denounced "the federal organs [which] continually hampered us, demanding negotiations while they [the Slovenians] were attacking us with all means."

1 July 1991
The heaviest fighting of the war to date took place during 2 July, which proved a day of disasters for the JNA. The JNA tank column in the Krakovski forest came under sustained attack from TO units, forcing it to surrender. Units from the JNA's Fourth Armoured Corps attempted to move up from Jastrebarsko in Croatia but were beaten back near the border town of Bregana. The Slovenian TO mounted successful attacks on border crossings at Šentilj, Gornja Radgona, Fernetiči and Gorjansko, capturing them and taking a number of JNA troops prisoner. A lengthy engagement between JNA and TO forces took place during the afternoon and evening at Dravograd, and a number of JNA facilities around the country fell to Slovenian forces.
At 2100, the Slovenian Presidency announced a unilateral ceasefire. However, this was rejected by the JNA leadership, which vowed to "take control" and crush Slovenian resistance.

3 July 1991
With a ceasefire now in force, the two sides disengaged. Slovenian forces took control of all of the country's border crossings, and JNA units were allowed to withdraw peacefully to barracks and to cross the border to Croatia.

4–6 July 1991
The Ten-Day War was formally ended with the agreement of the Brioni Accord, signed on the Croatian Brioni Islands. The terms were distinctly favourable to Slovenia; a three-month moratorium on Slovenian independence was agreed — which in practical terms had little real impact — and the Slovenian police and armed forces were recognised as sovereign on their territory.
It was agreed that all Yugoslav military units would leave Slovenia, with the Yugoslav government setting a deadline of the end of October to complete the process. The Slovenian government insisted that the withdrawal should proceed on its terms; the JNA was not allowed to take much of its heavy weaponry and equipment, which was later either deployed locally or sold to other Yugoslav republics. The withdrawal began about ten days later and was completed by 26 October.

7 July 1991 and afterwards
Due to the short duration and low intensity of the war, casualties were low. According to Slovenian estimates, the JNA suffered 44 fatalities and 146 wounded, while the Slovenians had 18 killed and 182 wounded. Twelve foreign nationals were killed in the conflict, principally journalists and Bulgarian truck drivers who had strayed into the line of fire. 4,692 JNA soldiers and 252 federal police officers were captured by the Slovenian side. According to post-war assessments made by the JNA, its material losses amounted to 31 tanks, 22 armoured personnel carriers, 6 helicopters, 6,787 infantry weapons, 87 artillery pieces and 124 air defence weapons damaged, destroyed or confiscated. Property damage was fairly light, due to the scattered and short-term nature of the fighting.


Claims of war crimes
The border station at Holmec was the location of an alleged war crime perpetrated by TO forces, filmed by the Austrian public broadcasting station ORF. Video footage shows a small group of JNA soldiers standing or walking slowly with raised hands, holding up a white sheet in an apparent attempt to surrender. Moments later, gunfire is heard and the soldiers fall to the ground. Neither the origin of the gunfire nor its exact effect are clearly visible on the video segment. Slovene officials maintain that the JNA soldiers jumped for cover and were not hit, and that the matter has been thoroughly investigated years ago. However, the incident has sparked renewed public debate after the footage was shown on Serbian TV station B92 in 2006, with many claiming that the soldiers were shot and killed by TO troops and that Slovenia is trying to cover up the affair. ("Serb Official Accuses Slovenia Troops Of War Crimes", 2006-04-08 Associated Press Report, "Slovenia denies Serbian claims of independence war crimes", 2006-04-06 Slovenian News Agency STA Report, "Janša Protests to Koštunica over Statements on Holmec", 2006-04-06 BETA News Agency Report) The fate of the JNA soldiers identified on the footage has been tracked, however, and they were all reported alive 15 years after the conflict.

Holmec Incident
The actions of Slovenia's forces were largely dictated by the military strategy devised some months before and were tightly integrated with an equally detailed media management plan. An international media centre was established prior to the outbreak of conflict with Jelko Kacin designated to act as information minister and Slovenia's public face to the world. The Slovenian government successfully presented the conflict as a case of a "David versus Goliath" struggle between an emerging democracy and an authoritarian communist state, and the columns of Yugoslav tanks inevitably brought to mind the events of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 only two years earlier. This won considerable international sympathy and favourable media coverage for the Slovenian cause.
The Slovenians had the advantage of far superior morale, compared to their adversaries in the Yugoslav army. Many of the Yugoslav soldiers apparently did not realise they were taking part in a real military operation, rather than an exercise, until they came under attack. The officer corps was dominated by Serbs and Montenegrins and in many cases ideologically committed to Yugoslav unity. The rank and file troops however were conscripts, who had no interest in fighting Slovenes. Of the soldiers of the 5th Military District, which was in action in Slovenia, in 1990 30% were Albanians, 20% Croats, 10% Bosnian Muslims, 15 to 20% Serbs and Montenegrins, and 8% Slovenes. Serbia was at this point more concerned with the situation in Croatia, even before the war had ended, JNA troops were already repositioning themselves for the imminent war in Croatia.

Strategic aspects of the war
The Ten-Day War had important consequences for all of its participants.
For Slovenia, the war marked the decisive break with Yugoslavia. It was officially recognised by all the European Community member states on 15 January 1992 and joined the United Nations on 22 May, along with the other post-Yugoslav states.
With Croatia as a buffer between it and Serbia, Slovenia was able to maintain its independence and its position as the most stable and prosperous of the former Yugoslav republics and joined the European Union on 1 May 2004.
The war led to a series of major shifts on the Yugoslav side. The JNA rapidly lost virtually all of its Slovenian and Croat personnel, becoming an almost entirely Serbian and Montenegrian force. Its poor performance in Slovenia and later in Croatia discredited its leadership — Kadijević resigned as defence minister in January 1992, and Adžić was forced into medical retirement shortly afterwards. The idea of preserving a unitary Yugoslavia had to be abandoned after the defeat in Slovenia and was replaced by Milošević's conception of "all Serbs in one state" (widely characterised as "Greater Serbia").
Croatia did not become directly involved in the war even though they declared independence on the same day as Slovenia, 25 June 1991. The Croatian government was urged by the European Commission to place a three-month moratorium on the decision of independence; Croatia thereby agreed to freeze its independence declaration for three months, hoping to calm tensions. But even as Croatia began to move towards independence, its territory was still used as the launchpad for JNA incursions into Slovenia. Many Slovenes considered that the Croatians, who were also seeking independence, should have at least tried to obstruct the Yugoslav war effort. This left a degree of distrust which contributed to strained relations between the countries for several years.

Ten-Day War Notes

Allcock, John B. et al. Conflict in the Former Yugoslavia. ABC-CLIO, Denver, 1998
Gow, James & Carmichael, Cathie. Slovenia and the Slovenes. C. Hurst, London, 1999
Gow, James. The Serbian Project and its Adversaries. C. Hurst, London, 2003
The War in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1991–1995, ed. Branka Magaš and Ivo Žanić. Frank Cass, London, 2001
Svajncer, Brigadier Janez J. "War for Slovenia 1991", Slovenska vojska, May 2001.

Sunday, October 28, 2007

Gaston Tarry
Gaston Tarry ( September 27, 1843 - June 21, 1913) was a French mathematician. Born in Villefranche de Rouergue, Aveyron, he studied mathematics at high school before joining the civil service in Algeria.
He pursued mathematics as an amateur, his most famous achievement being his confirmation in 1901 of Leonhard Euler's conjecture that no 6×6 Graeco-Latin square was possible.

Saturday, October 27, 2007

Donetsk OblastDonetsk Oblast
Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Донецька область, Donets'ka oblast'; also referred to as DonechchynaUkrainian: Донеччина) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. Its administrative center is Donetsk. Historically, the province is an important part of the Donbas region.
Important cities within the oblast include: Slovyansk, Horlivka, Kramatorsk, Makiivka, Mariupol, Yenakiieve.

The oblast is subdivided into 18 raions (administrative districts). It consists of 28 municipalities, 52 cities, 131 towns, and more than 1,124 villages.
The following data incorporates the number of each type of administrative divisions of Donetsk Oblast:
The local administration of the oblast' is controlled by the Donetsk Oblast Rada. The governer of the oblast' is the Donetsk Oblast Rada speaker, appointed by the President of Ukraine.

Administrative Center - 1 (Donetsk)
Raions — 18;
City raions — 28;
Settlements — 1,283, including:

  • Villages — 1,124;
    Cities/Towns — 159, including:

    • Urban-type settlement — 131;
      Cities — 52, including:

      • Cities of oblast' subordinance — 28;
        Cities of raion subordinance — 24;
        SelsovetsN/A. Administrative divisions

        Yasynuvatskyi Raions
        The population of Donetsk Oblast is 4.7 million (as of 2004), which constitutes 10% of the overall Ukrainian population, making it the most populous and most densely populated region of the country. Its large population is due to the presence of several big industrial cities and numerous villages agglomerated around them (see urbanization).
        During the 2004 presidential election, political supporters of Viktor Yanukovych threatened to demand autonomy for Donetsk and neighboring oblasts if the election of their candidate was not recognized. However, no official moves were ever made.
        As of the Ukrainian National Census, 2001, the ethnic groups within the Donetsk Oblast are: Ukrainians — 2,744,100 (56.9%), Russians — 1,844,400 (38.2%), Greeks - 77,500 (1.61%), Belarusians — 44,500 (0.92%), Crimean Tatars — 19,200 (0.4%), Armenians — 15,700 (0.33%), and Jews - 8,800 (0.18%).

        The Donetsk Oblast covers more than one half coal, finished steel, coke, cast iron and steel production in Ukraine. Ferrous metallurgy, fuel industry and power industry are in demand in the structure of industry production. There are about 882 industry enterprises that are on independent balance, and 2,095 small industry enterprises in the oblast.

        In 1999, the gross grain yield in the oblast was about 999,1 thousand tons, sugar beets – 27,1 thousand tons, sunflower seeds – 309,4 thousand tons, and potatoes – 380,2 thousand tons.


        Subdivisions of Ukraine
        Donets Basin

Friday, October 26, 2007

Thomas Starr King
Thomas Starr King, (December 17, 1824March 4, 1864) was a Unitarian minister, influential in California politics during the American Civil War.
Thomas Starr King, "the orator who saved the nation", was born December 17, 1824, in New York City. The sole support of his family at age 15, he was forced to leave school. Inspired by men like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry Ward Beecher, King embarked on a program of self-study for the ministry. At the age of 20 he took over his father's former pulpit at the First Unitarian Church of Charlestown, Massachusetts.
In 1848 he was appointed pastor of the Hollis Street Unitarian Church in Boston, where he became one of the most famous preachers in New England. He vacationed in the White Mountains of New Hampshire and in 1859 published a book about the area entitled The White Hills; their Legends, Landscapes, & Poetry. In 1860 he accepted a call from the First Unitarian Church of San Francisco, California. During the Civil War, he spoke zealously in favor of the Union and was credited by Abraham Lincoln with saving California from becoming a separate republic. In addition, he organized the Pacific Branch of the United States Sanitary Commission, which cared for wounded soldiers and was the predecessor to the American Red Cross.
A fiery orator, he raised over $1.5 million for the Sanitary Commission headquarters in New York, one-fifth of the total contributions from all the states in the Union. The relentless lecture circuit exhausted him, and he died in San Francisco on March 4, 1864, of diphtheria.
Mountain peaks in the White Mountains (Mount Starr King, elevation 1,191 m (3,907 feet) and in Yosemite National Park are named in his honor. In 1913 he was voted one of California's two greatest heroes and funds were appropriated for a statue. In 1931 the state of California donated a bronze statue of King to the National Statuary Hall Collection. In 1941 the Starr King School for the Ministry (Unitarian Universalist), in Berkeley, California, was also renamed in his honor. King's church and tomb in San Francisco are designated historical monuments, and two streets in the city (Starr King Way, on which the church is located, and King Street in the Mission Bay neighborhood) are named for him. There is also a statue of him in Golden Gate Park, facing JFK Drive, quite close to the De Young Museum.

Thursday, October 25, 2007

In linguistics, clipping is the word formation process which consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts (Marchand:1969). Clippings are, also, known as "shortenings."
Clipping mainly consists of the following types:

Back clipping
Middle clipping
Complex clipping Fore-clipping
Fore-clipping or aphaeresis retains the final part.
Clipping (lexicography)

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

Henry W. Bloch
Henry W. Bloch (b. July 30, 1922) the chairman emeritus of H&R Block. Henry and his brother, Richard Bloch, founded H&R Block in 1955 in Kansas City, Missouri.

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

(If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you)
Michigan (IPA: /ˈmɪ.ʃə.gən/, roughly MISH-uh-gun)) is a Midwestern state of the United States of America, located in the east north central portion of the country. It was named after Lake Michigan, whose name was a French adaptation of the Ojibwe term mishigami, meaning "large water" or "large lake". A person in Michigan is never more than 85 miles (137 km) from open Great Lakes water and is never more than 6 miles (10 km) from a natural water source.
Michigan is the only bi-peninsular state. The Lower Peninsula of Michigan, to which the name Michigan was originally applied, is sometimes dubbed "the mitten," owing to its shape. When asked where in Michigan one comes from, a resident of the Lower Peninsula may often point to the corresponding part of his or her hand. The Upper Peninsula (U.P.) is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan. The Upper Peninsula (whose residents are often called "Yoopers") is economically important for tourism and its natural resources.
The Upper and Lower Peninsulas are connected by the five-mile-long Mackinac Bridge, which is the third longest suspension bridge between anchorages in the world. This is the source of the name "trolls" for residents of the Lower Peninsula, for they live "under" (south of) the bridge. The Great Lakes that border Michigan are Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Michigan also abuts Lake Saint Clair, which is between Lake Erie and Lake Huron.

Michigan History
French voyageurs explored and settled in Michigan in the 17th century. The first Europeans to reach what later became Michigan were Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first European settlement was made in 1641 on the site where Father (or Père, in French) Jacques Marquette established Sault Sainte-Marie in 1668.
Saint-Ignace was founded in 1671, and Marquette in 1675. Together with Sault Sainte-Marie, they are the three oldest cities in Michigan. "The Soo" (Sault Ste. Marie) has the distinction of being the oldest city in both Michigan and Ontario. It was split into two cities in 1818, a year after the U.S.-Canada boundary in the Great Lakes was finally established by the U.S.-UK Joint Border Commission.
In 1679, Lord La Salle of France directed the construction of the Griffin, the first European sailing vessel on the upper Great Lakes. That same year, La Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph.

In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Le Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Ponchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait between Lakes St. Clair and Erie, known as the Detroit River. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and repel British aspirations.
The hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent Under terms negotiated in the 1794 Jay Treaty, Britain withdrew from Detroit and Michilimackinac in 1796. However, questions remained over the boundary for many years and the United States did not have uncontested control of the Upper Peninsula and Drummond Island until 1818 and 1847, respectively.

Michigan 1700s
During the War of 1812, Michigan Territory (effectively consisting of Detroit and the surrounding area) was captured by the British and nominally returned to Upper Canada until the Treaty of Ghent, which implemented the policy of "Status Quo Ante Bellum" or "Just as Things Were Before the War." That meant Michigan stayed American, and the agreement to establish a joint U.S.-UK boundary commission also remained valid. Subsequent to the findings of that commission in 1817, control of the Upper Peninsula and of islands in the St. Clair River delta was transferred from Ontario to Michigan in 1818, and Drummond Island (to which the British had moved their Michilimackinac army base) was transferred in 1847.
The population grew slowly until the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which brought a large influx of settlers. By the 1830s, Michigan had some 80,000 residents, which was more than enough to apply for statehood. A state government was formed in 1836, although Congressional recognition of the state languished because of a boundary dispute with Ohio, with both sides claiming a 468 square mile (1,210 km²) strip of land that included the newly incorporated city of Toledo on Lake Erie and an area to the west then known as the "Great Black Swamp." The dispute came to be called the Toledo War, with Michigan and Ohio militia maneuvering in the area but never coming to blows. Ultimately, Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio, and Michigan, having received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession, formally entered the Union on January 26, 1837.
Thought to be useless at the time, the Upper Peninsula was soon discovered to be a rich and important source of lumber, iron, and copper, which would become the state's most sought-after natural resources. Geologist Douglass Houghton and land surveyor William Austin Burt were among the first to document and discover many of these resources, which led to a nation-wide increase of interest in the state. Michigan lead the nation in lumber production from 1850's to the 1880's.
Michigan made a significant contribution to the Union in the American Civil War, sending over forty regiments of volunteers to the Federal armies.
Michigan's economy underwent a massive change at the turn of the 20th century. The birth of the automotive industry, with Henry Ford's first plant in the Highland Park enclave of Detroit, marked the beginning of a new era in transportation. It was a development that not only transformed Detroit and Michigan, but permanently altered the socio-economic climate of the United States and much of the world. Grand Rapids, the second-largest city in Michigan, is also a center of automotive manufacturing. Since 1838, the city had also been noted for its thriving furniture industry (which has since declined substantially).

In 1910 Michigan held its first primary election.
In 1920 Detroit's WWJ begins commercial broadcasting of regular programs, the first such radio station in the United States.
Detroit boomed through the 1950s, at one point doubling its population in a decade. In the 1920s some of the country's largest and most ornate skyscrapers were built in the city. Housing shortages and racial tension led to outward movement starting after World War II. After the 1950s, with suburban sprawl prevalent across the country, Detroit's population began to decline, and the rate increased after further racial strife in the 1960s and high crime rates in the 70s and 80s. Government programs such as road-building often enabled the sprawl.
Since the 1970s, Michigan's industrial base has eroded as the auto industry began to abandon the state's industrial parks in favor of less expensive labor found overseas and in the southern U.S. states. Nevertheless, with more than 10 million residents, Michigan continues to grow and remains a large and influential state, ranking eighth in population among the 50 states.
The Detroit metropolitan area in the southeast corner of the state remains the largest metropolitan area in Michigan (roughly 50% of the population resides there) and one of the 10 largest metro areas in the country. The Grand Rapids/Holland/Muskegon metro area on the west side of the state is the fastest growing metro area in the state presently, with over 1.3 million residents as of 2006.
Metro Detroit's population is now growing very little, and Detroit's population is still shrinking, though strong redevelopment in central part of the cities, and a significant rise in population in the southwest part of the city, is contributing to some population inflow. A period of economic transition, especially in manufacturing, has caused this region's economy to perform worse than the national average for several years.

1900s to the present
See also: List of Michigan Governors, List of United States Senators from Michigan, and List of United States Representatives from Michigan

Law and Politics
Lansing is the state capital and is home to all three branches of state government. The Michigan State Capitol was dedicated in 1879 and has hosted the state's executive and legislative branches ever since. The chief executive is the Governor, and Jennifer Granholm currently holds the office. The legislative branch consists of the bicameral Michigan Legislature, with a House of Representatives and Senate. The Michigan legislature is a full-time legislature, though some representatives have voiced concerns about the long hours disrupting their home lives and wish to make the job part-time. The Supreme Court of Michigan sits with seven justices. The Constitution of Michigan of 1963 provides for voter initiative and referendum (Article II, § 9,
The Executive Branch of the State of Michigan has several Departments or agencies [3]:
State of Michigan Departments

Michigan Department of Agriculture
Michigan Attorney General
Michigan Civil Rights
Michigan Civil Service
Michigan Community Health
Michigan Corrections
Michigan Education
Michigan Environmental Quality
Michigan History, Arts and Libraries
Michigan Human Services
Michigan Department of Information Technology
Michigan Department of Labor & Economic Growth
Michigan Management and Budget
Michigan Military and Veterans Affairs
Michigan Department of Natural Resources
Michigan Secretary of State
Michigan Michigan State Police
Michigan Department of Transportation
Michigan Treasury Law
The Republican Party dominated Michigan until the Great Depression. In 1912, Michigan was one of the few states to support progressive Republican and third party candidate Theodore Roosevelt for President after he lost the Republican nomination to William Howard Taft. In recent years, the state has leaned toward the Democratic Party in national elections. Michigan has supported Democrats in the last four presidential elections. In 2004, John Kerry carried the state over George W. Bush, winning Michigan's 17 electoral votes with 51.2% of the vote. Democrats have won each of the last three, and nine of the last ten, US Senate elections in Michigan. Michigan Governor Jennifer Granholm, also a Democrat, recently won a second term, beating out Republican candidate Dick DeVos. Republican strength is greatest in the western, northern, and rural parts of the state, especially in the Grand Rapids area. Democrats are strongest in the east, especially in Detroit, Ann Arbor, Flint, and Saginaw.


Administrative divisions
State government is decentralized among three tiers — statewide, county and township. Counties are administrative divisions of the state, and townships are administrative divisions of a county. Both of them exercise state government authority, localized to meet the particular needs of their jurisdictions, as provided by state law. There are 83 counties in Michigan.
See also: Administrative divisions of Michigan, List of Michigan county seats, and List of counties in Michigan

County government
Cities, state universities, and villages are vested with home rule powers of varying degrees. Home rule cities can generally do anything that is not prohibited by law. The fifteen state universities have broad power and can do anything within the parameters of their status as educational institutions that is not prohibited by the state constitution. Villages, by contrast, have limited home rule, in that they are not completely autonomous from the county and township in which they are located.
There are two types of township in Michigan: general law township and charter. Charter township status was created by the Legislature in 1947 and grants additional powers and stream-lined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation by a city. As of April 2001, there were 127 charter townships in Michigan. In general, charter townships have many of the same powers as a city but without the same level of obligations. For example, a charter township can have its own fire department, water & sewage department, police department, and so on—just like a city—but it is not required to have those things, whereas cities must provide those services. Charter townships can opt to use county-wide services instead, such as deputies from the county sheriff's office instead of a home-based force of ordinance officers.
See also: Administrative divisions of Michigan and List of municipalities in Michigan (by population)

Local and Municipal government
See also: Protected areas of Michigan and List of Michigan state parks
Michigan consists of two peninsulas that lie between 82°30' to about 90º30' west longitude, and are separated by the Straits of Mackinac.
The state is bounded on the south by the states of Ohio and Indiana, sharing both land and water boundaries with both. Michigan's western boundaries are almost entirely water boundaries, from south to north, with Illinois and Wisconsin in Lake Michigan; then a land boundary with Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula, that is principally demarcated by the Menominee and Montreal rivers; then water boundaries again, in Lake Superior, with Wisconsin and Minnesota to the west, capped around by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north and east. The northern boundary then runs completely through Lake Superior, from the western boundary with Minnesota to a point north of and around Isle Royale, (which is Michigans only National Park), thence travelling southeastward through the lake in a reasonably straight line to the Sault Ste. Marie area. Windsor, Ontario, once the south bank of Detroit, Upper Canada, has the distinction of being the only part of Canada which lies to the due south of a part of the lower 48 contiguous United States. In Southeastern Michigan there is a water boundary with the Canada along the entire lengths of the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair (including the First Nation reserve of Walpole Island) and the Detroit River. The south-eastern boundary ends in the western end of Lake Erie with a three-way convergence of Michigan, Ohio and Ontario.
Michigan encompasses 58,110 square miles (150,504 km²) of land, 38,575 square miles (99,909 km²) of Great Lakes waters and 1,305 square miles (3,380 km²) of inland waters. Only the state of Alaska has more territorial water. After Michigan is third ranked Florida which has 11,827.77 square miles (30,633.8 km²). but the U.S. Census Bureau claims only 56,803.82 sq mi of land and 96,716.11 sq mi total, making it the 11th largest. </ref>
The heavily forested Upper Peninsula is relatively mountainous in the west. The Porcupine Mountains, which are the oldest mountains in North America, rise to an altitude of almost 2,000 feet above sea level and form the watershed between the streams flowing into Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. The surface on either side of this range is rugged. The state's highest point, in the Huron Mountains northwest of Marquette, is Mount Arvon at 1,979 feet (603 m). The peninsula is as large as Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island combined, but has less than 330,000 inhabitants, who are sometimes called "Yoopers" (from "U.P.'ers") and whose speech (the "Yooper dialect") has been heavily influenced by the large number of Scandinavian and Canadian immigrants who settled the area during the mining boom of the late 1800s.
The Lower Peninsula, shaped like a mitten, is 277 miles (446 km) long from north to south and 195 miles (314 km) from east to west and occupies nearly two-thirds of the state's land area. The surface of the peninsula is generally level, broken by conical hills and glacial moraines usually not more than a few hundred feet tall. It is divided by a low water divide running north and south. The larger portion of the state is on the west of this and gradually slopes toward Lake Michigan. The highest point in the Lower Peninsula is not definitely established but is either Briar Hill at 1,705 feet (520 m), or one of several points nearby in the vicinity of Cadillac. The lowest point is the surface of Lake Erie at 571 feet (174 m).
The geographic orientation of Michigan's peninsulas make for a long distance between the ends of the state. Ironwood, in the far western Upper Peninsula, lies 630 highway miles (1,015 km) from the Toledo, Ohio suburb of Lambertville in the Lower Peninsula's southeastern corner. The geographic isolation of the Upper Peninsula from Michigan's political and population centers makes it culturally and economically distinct, and the feeling that Lansing and Detroit do not care about the U.P. has led to occasional calls for secession from Michigan and admission as a new state called "Superior."
There are numerous lakes and marshes in both peninsulas, and the coast is much indented. Keweenaw, Whitefish, and the Big and Little Bays De Noc are the principal indentations on the Upper Peninsula, while the Grand and Little Traverse, Thunder, and Saginaw bays indent the Lower Peninsula. After Alaska, Michigan has the longest shoreline of any state—3,288 miles (5,326 km). An additional 1,056 miles (1,699 km) can be added if islands are included. This roughly equals the length of the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida. The state has numerous large islands, the principal ones being the Manitou, Beaver, and Fox groups in Lake Michigan; Isle Royale and Grande Isle in Lake Superior; Marquette, Bois Blanc, and Mackinac Islands in Lake Huron; and Neebish, Sugar, and Drummond Islands in St. Mary's River (see also Islands of Michigan).
The state's rivers are small, short and shallow, and few are navigable. The principal ones include the Au Sable, Thunder Bay, Cheboygan, and Saginaw, all of which flow into Lake Huron; the Ontonagon, and Tahquamenon, which flow into Lake Superior; and the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Grand, and Escanaba, which flow into Lake Michigan. (See List of Michigan rivers). The state has 11,037 inland lakes and 38,575 square miles (62,067 km) of Great Lakes waters and rivers and 1,305 square miles of inland water on top of that. No point in Michigan is more than 6 miles (10 km) from an inland lake or more than 85 miles (137 km) from one of the Great Lakes.
Detroit is the only major city in the United States from which one must travel southward to cross the border into Canada. Metropolitan Detroit/Ann Arbor/Flint/Windsor is also the world's largest international metropolitan area.
The state is home to one national park: Isle Royale National Park. Other national protected areas in the state include: Keweenaw National Historical Park, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, and Father Marquette National Memorial. The North Country National Scenic Trail also passes through Michigan. Michigan also has the largest state park system of any state.

Michigan has a humid continental climate throughout the state, although there are two distinct regions. The southern and central parts of the Lower Peninsula (south of Saginaw Bay and from the Grand Rapids area southward) has a warmer climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa) with hot, humid summers and cold, but shorter winters. The northern part of Lower Peninsula and the entire Upper Peninsula has a more severe climate (Koppen Dfb), with warm, humid but shorter summers and long, cold to very cold winters. Some parts of the state averaging high temperatures below freezing from December through February, and into early March in the far northern parts. During the late fall through the middle of February the state is frequently subjected to heavy lake effect snow. The state receives a good amount of precipitation throughout the year, averaging from 30-40 inches (750-1000 mm) annually. Typically, from December through March is slightly drier, while July through September is slightly wetter than the rest of the year, although this difference isn't extreme as in some other states.
The entire state averages around 30 days of thunderstorm activity per year, and these can be severe, especially the further south in the state one goes. The state averages 17 tornadoes a year, and these are much more common in the extreme southern portion of the state with portions of the southern border nearly as vulnerable historically as parts of Tornado alley. Further north, in the Upper Peninsula, tornadoes are rare, but have occurred.

The geological formation of the state is greatly varied. Primary boulders are found over the entire surface of the Upper Peninsula (being principally of primitive origin), while Secondary deposits cover the entire Lower Peninsula. The Upper Peninsula exhibits Lower Silurian sandstones, limestones, copper and iron bearing rocks, corresponding to the Huronian system of Canada. The central portion of the Lower Peninsula contains coal measures and rocks of the Permo-Carboniferous period. Devonian and sub-Carboniferous deposits are scattered over the entire state.
The soil is of a varied composition and in large areas is very fertile, especially in the south. However, the Upper Peninsula for the most part is rocky and mountainous, and the soil is unsuitable for agriculture. The climate is tempered by the proximity of the lakes and is much milder than in other locales with the same latitude. The principal forest trees include basswood, maple, elm, sassafras, butternut, walnut, poplar, hickory, oak, willow, pine, birch, beech, hemlock, witchhazel, tamarack, cedar, locust, dogwood, and ash.

The religious affiliations of the people of Michigan are:

Christian – 82%

  • Protestant – 58%

    • Baptist – 15%
      Methodist – 10%
      Pentecostal – 7%
      Lutheran – 5%
      Reformed – 4%
      United Church of Christ – 3%
      Church of Christ – 2%
      Other Protestant – 12%
      Catholic – 23%
      Other Christian – 1%
      Muslim – 2%
      Jewish – 1%
      Other Religions – <1%
      Non-Religious – 15% Religion
      See also: List of companies based in Michigan and Economy of metropolitan Detroit
      The Michigan economy leads in information technology, life sciences, and advanced manufacturing. Michigan ranks fourth nationally in high tech employment with 568,000 high tech workers, including 70,000 in the automotive industry.



      Main article: Michigan Services Railroads
      Interstate 75 is the main thoroughfare between Detroit and Flint, extending all the way to Sault Saint Marie and providing access to Sault Saint Marie, Ontario. The expressway crosses the Mackinac Bridge between the Lower and Upper Peninsulas. Branching highways include I-275 and I-375 in Detroit; I-475 in Flint; I-675 in Saginaw.
      Interstate 69 enters the state near the Michigan-Ohio-Indiana border, and it extends to Port Huron and provides access to the Blue Water Bridge crossing into Sarnia, Ontario.
      Interstate 94 enters the western end of the state at the Indiana border, and it travels east to Detroit and then northeast to Port Huron and ties in with I-69. I-194 branches off from this freeway in Battle Creek.
      Interstate 96 runs east-west between Detroit and Muskegon. I-496 loops around Lansing. I-196 branches off from this freeway at Grand Rapids and connects to I-94 near Benton Harbor. I-696 branches off from this freeway at Novi and connects to I-94 near St Clair Shores and Eastpointe.

      Interstate Highways
      Include: US 2, US 8, US 10, US 12, US 23, US 24, US 31, US 41, US 45, US 127, US 131, US 141, US 223.
      Major bridges include the Ambassador Bridge, Blue Water Bridge, Mackinac Bridge, and International Bridge. Michigan also has the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel crossing into Canada.

      U.S. Routes
      Further information: List of cities, villages, and townships in Michigan
      The largest municipalities in Michigan are (according to 2005 census estimates):

      Other important cities include:
      Half of the wealthiest communities in the state are located in Oakland County, just north of Detroit. Another wealthy community is located just east of the city, in Grosse Pointe. Only three of these cities are located outside of Metro Detroit. Detroit, with a per capita income of $14,717, ranks 517th on the list of Michigan locations by per capita income. Benton Harbor is the poorest city in Michigan, with a per capita income of $8,965, while Barton Hills is the richest with a per capita income of $110,683.

      Battle Creek ("Cereal City U.S.A." - world headquarters of Kellogg Company)
      Benton Harbor / St. Joseph - headquarters of Whirlpool Corporation
      East Lansing (home of Michigan State University)
      Kalamazoo (home to Western Michigan University)
      Marquette (largest city in the Upper Peninsula with 19,661 people).
      Midland (headquarters of the Dow Chemical Company and the Dow Corning Corporation)
      Muskegon (Largest Michigan city sitting on Lake Michigan)
      Pontiac, a major automobile manufacturing center, and the home of the Pontiac Silverdome
      Port Huron (major international crossing and home of the Blue Water Bridge)
      Sault Ste. Marie (home of the Soo Locks and Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge)
      Saginaw (The largest of the Tri-Cities, which are comprised of Bay City, Midland, and Saginaw)
      Traverse City ("Cherry Capital of the World")
      Ypsilanti (Home of Eastern Michigan University) Important cities and townships


      Adrian College
      Albion College
      Alma College
      Andrews University
      Aquinas College
      Ave Maria College
      Ave Maria School of Law
      Baker College
      Calvin College
      Calvin Theological Seminary
      Center for Humanistic Studies
      Central Bible College
      Central Michigan University
      Cleary University
      College for Creative Studies
      Concordia University
      Cornerstone University
      Cranbrook Academy of Art
      Davenport University
      Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary
      Eastern Michigan University
      Ecumenical Theological Seminary
      Ferris State University
      Finlandia University
      Grace Bible College
      Grand Rapids Theological Seminary
      Grand Valley State University
      Great Lakes Christian College
      Hillsdale College
      Hope College
      Kalamazoo College
      Kendall College of Art and Design
      Kettering University
      Kuyper College
      Lake Superior State University
      Lawrence Technological University
      Lewis College of Business
      Madonna University
      Marygrove College
      Michigan Jewish Institute
      Michigan State University
      Michigan Technological University
      Michigan Theological Seminary
      Northern Michigan University
      Northwestern Michigan College
      Northwood University
      Oakland University
      Olivet College
      Puritan Reformed Theological Seminary
      Rochester College
      Sacred Heart Major Seminary
      SS. Cyril and Methodius Seminary
      Saginaw Valley State University
      Siena Heights University
      Spring Arbor University
      Theological School of the Protestant Reformed Churches
      Thomas M. Cooley Law School
      University of Detroit Mercy
      University of Michigan System

      • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
        University of Michigan-Dearborn
        University of Michigan-Flint
        Walsh College of Accountancy and Business
        Wayne State University
        Western Michigan University
        Western Theological Seminary
        William Tyndale College
        Yeshiva Gedolah Ateres Mordechai of Greater Detroit Colleges and universities
        Ross Medical Education Center - Saginaw, Flint, Grand Rapids, Brighton, Muskegon, Redford, Warren, Port Huron, Lansing, Ann Arbor

        American College of Computer and Information Sciences
        Alpena Community College
        Bay de Noc Community College
        Bay Mills Community College
        Delta College
        Ellis College of NYIT
        Glen Oaks Community College
        Gogebic Community College
        Grand Rapids Community College
        Henry Ford Community College
        ITT Technical Institute - Canton, Grand Rapids, and Troy
        Jackson Community College
        Kalamazoo Valley Community College
        Kellogg Community College
        Kirtland Community College
        Lake Michigan College
        Lansing Community College
        Macomb Community College
        Mid-Michigan Community College
        Michigan Career and Technical Institute
        Michigan Institution of Aviation and Technology
        Monroe County Community College
        Montcalm Community College
        Mott Community College
        Muskegon Community College
        National Institute of Technology - Southfield and Wyoming
        North Central Michigan College
        Northwestern Michigan College
        Oakland Community College
        Olympia Career Training Institute - Grand Rapids and Kalamazoo
        Saint Clair County Community College
        Schoolcraft College
        Southwestern Michigan College
        University of Phoenix - Detroit and Grand Rapids
        Washtenaw Community College
        Wayne County Community College
        West Shore Community College Community colleges and technical schools
        Most major league sports teams in Michigan are located in Metro Detroit, with the Detroit Tigers baseball team (MLB), Detroit Lions football team (NFL), and Detroit Red Wings ice hockey team (NHL) located within the city of Detroit. The Detroit Pistons men's basketball team of NBA and the Detroit Shock women's basketball team of the WNBA play at the Palace of Auburn Hills. (The Pistons played at Detroit's Cobo Arena until 1978, and at Pontiac's Silverdome until 1988) The Detroit Lions played at Tiger Stadium in Detroit until 1974, then moved out to the Pontiac Silverdome in Pontiac before moving back to Detroit's Ford Field in 2002. The Arena Football League's Grand Rapids Rampage is the state's other "major league" sports team. Eight-time Grand Slam champion Serena Williams was born in Saginaw. Professional hockey got its start in Houghton, Michigan in the U.P., when the Portage Lakers were formed.
        Other notable sports teams include:

        Professional sports teams
        See also: List of Michigan sport championships

        Former Professional Teams
        The section could be improved by integrating relevant items into the main text and removing inappropriate items.

        Michigan is the first state in the Union to have outlawed affirmative action for college admission.
        Windsor, Ontario is south of Detroit, Michigan, and is separated by the Detroit River. Windsor marks the only border crossing where entering the mainland United States from Canada involves traveling north.
        The Detroit-Windsor international border is the busiest border between the United States and Canada.
        Michigan is simultaneously known for its cities, supported by heavy industry, and its pristine wilderness, home to more than 11,000 lakes. The clang and clamor of Metro Detroit's crowded thoroughfares and busy factories stand in vivid counterpoint to the tranquility found in virtually every corner of the state.
        An individual from Michigan is called a "Michigander" or "Michiganian".
        Michigan has the largest State Forest system in the nation.
        Michigan has 4 National Forests. The Manistee, Hiawatha, Ottawa, and Huron, although the Manistee and Huron are administratively combined.
        Michigan is home to more public golf courses than any other state.
        Michigan has two official Governor's Residences. One is in Lansing, the other is at Mackinac Island.
        The soda beverage Vernors was invented in Michigan
        Because of their high concentration of confectionery shops, Northern Michigan residents often refer to tourists as "Fudgies".
        Faygo was founded in Detroit on November 4, 1907.
        Michigan is the largest producers of cherries of all the states.
        Michigan is the 3rd leading grower of Christmas trees.
        Michigan ranks 1st in the nation in the number of registered snowmobiles.
        Michigan ranks 3rd in the nation in licensed hunters at over 750,000. Trivia

        State nicknames: Wolverine State, Great Lakes State, Mitten State, Water Winter Wonderland, "Automotive State",
        State motto: Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam circumspice (Latin: If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you). This is a paraphrase of a statement made by British architect Sir Christopher Wren about his influence on London.
        State song: My Michigan (official since 1937, but disputed amongst Michiganders, see Michigan's State Songs)
        State bird: American Robin (since 1931)
        State animal: Wolverine (traditional, though not codified)
        State game animal: White-tailed Deer (since 1997)
        State fish: Brook Trout (since 1965)
        State reptile: Painted Turtle (since 1995)
        State fossil: Mastodon (since 2000)
        State flower: Apple Blossom (adopted in 1897, official in 1997)
        State wildflower: Dwarf Lake Iris (since 1998). Known as Iris lacustris, it is a federally listed threatened species.
        State tree: White Pine (since 1955)
        State stone: Petoskey stone (since 1965). It is composed of fossilized coral (Hexagonaria pericarnata) from long ago when the middle of the continent was covered with a shallow sea.
        State gem: Isle Royale greenstone (since 1973). Also called chlorastrolite (literally "green star stone"), the mineral is found on Isle Royale and the Keweenaw peninsula.
        State soil: Kalkaska Sand (since 1990), ranges in color from black to yellowish brown, covers nearly a million acres (4,000 km²) in 29 counties. State symbols

        Flag of Japan Shiga Prefecture, Japan See also