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Utah (IPA: [ˈjutɑː]) is a U.S. state located in the western United States. It was the 45th state admitted to the union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 88% of Utah's 2,500,000 people, known as "Utahns," live in an urban concentration with Salt Lake City as the center, known as the Wasatch Front. In contrast, vast expanses of the state are nearly uninhabited, making the population the sixth most urbanized in the U.S.

Most of Utah is arid and high in elevation. Much of eastern and southern Utah receive 12 inches (300 mm) or less of precipitation per year, while many mountain areas receive more than 40 inches (1 m) per year, with some areas receiving up to 60 in (1.5 m). Much of western Utah receives less than 10 inches (25 cm), while the Wasatch Front receives approximately 15 inches (38 cm). The Great Salt Lake Desert is especially dry, receiving less than 5 inches (13 cm) annually. Snowfall is common in winter everywhere except the southern border and the Great Salt Lake Desert. St. George averages about 3 inches (7.5 cm) of snow per year, while Salt Lake City receives almost 60 inches (1.5 m) annually (amplified by the lake effect from the Great Salt Lake). Many mountain areas receive in excess of 350 inches (9 m) of snow in a year, while portions of the Wasatch Range receive up to 500 inches (12.7 m). Snowfall is common from November through mid-April in the lower elevations and from October through May in the mountains. The mountains often remain snow-covered into July. Fog and haze often caused by temperature inversions are common in the valleys and basins during winter, especially the Uinta Basin, just south of the Uinta Mountains.
During summer and fall, most of the precipitation is received from the storms coming from the south and consists of short, sporadic, and intense thunderstorms that can cause wildfires and flash floods. Most precipitation during the rest of the year is received from the Pacific Ocean. Spring is the wettest season across the north while late summer and early fall are the wettest times in the south and winter is the wettest season in most of the mountain areas.
Temperatures during the winter across most of Utah are below freezing. High temperatures average between 25 °F (-4 °C) and 50 °F (10 °C) across the state. Days below 0 °F (-18 °C) can be expected in many areas at least once a year, but in most of the populated areas, periods of subzero temperature are usually short in duration and not terribly severe. Some mountain valleys are very cold in winter. Randolph, for example sees an average of close to 50 days a year where temperatures drop below 0 °F (-18 °C). Mountains to the north and east of the state sometimes serve as barriers to Arctic air. In the summer, high temperatures average between 85 °F (29 °C) and 100 °F (38 °C). Days over 100 °F (38 °C) can be expected in most areas below 5,000 feet (1,500 m) at least once per year and are the norm in the southern valleys. The record high temperature in Utah was 117 °F (47 °C), recorded at St. George on July 5, 1985,


Main article: History of Utah History
Following the assassination of Joseph Smith, Jr., in Carthage, Illinois, in 1844, the more than 11,000
In 1847 when the first pioneers arrived, Utah was still Mexican territory. As a consequence of the Mexican-American War, the land became the territory of the United States upon the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848. The treaty was ratified by the United States Senate on March 10. In 1850, the Utah Territory was created with the Compromise of 1850, and Fillmore was designated the capital. In 1856, Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital.
Disputes between the Mormon inhabitants and the US Government intensified due to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' practice of plural marriage among its members. The Mormons were pushing for the establishment of the State of Deseret. The U.S. Government, which was reluctant to admit a state the size of the proposed Deseret into the union, opposed the polygamous practices of the Mormons.
After news of their polygamous practices spread, the members of the LDS Church were quickly viewed as un-American and rebellious. In 1857, after news of a false rebellion spread, the government sent troops on the "Utah expedition" to quell the supposed rebellion and to replace Brigham Young as territorial governor with Alfred Cumming. The resulting conflict is known as the Utah War.
As troops approached Salt Lake in northern Utah, nervous Mormon settlers and Paiutes attacked and killed 120 immigrants from Arkansas in southern Utah. The attack became known as the Mountain Meadows Massacre. The massacre became a point of contention between LDS leaders and the federal government for decades. Only one person, John D. Lee, was ever convicted of the murders, and he was executed at the massacre site.
Before troops led by Albert Sidney Johnston entered the territory, Brigham Young ordered all residents of Salt Lake City to evacuate southward to Utah Valley and sent out a force, known as the Nauvoo Legion, to delay the government's advance. Although wagons and supplies were burned, eventually the troops arrived, and Young surrendered official control to Cumming, although most subsequent commentators claim that Young retained true power in the territory. A steady stream of governors appointed by the president quit the position, often citing the unresponsiveness of their supposed territorial government. By agreement with Young, Johnston established Fort Floyd 40 miles away from Salt Lake City, to the southwest.
Salt Lake City was the last link of the First Transcontinental Telegraph, completed in October of 1861. Brigham Young was among the first to send a message, along with Abraham Lincoln and other officials.
Because of the American Civil War, federal troops were pulled out of Utah Territory, leaving the territory in LDS hands until Patrick E. Connor arrived with a regiment of California volunteers in 1862. Connor established Fort Douglas just three miles (5 km) east of Salt Lake City and encouraged his people to discover mineral deposits to bring more non-Mormons into the state. Minerals were discovered in Tooele County, and miners began to flock to the territory.
Beginning in 1865, Utah's Black Hawk War developed into the deadliest conflict in the territory's history. Chief Antonga Black Hawk died in 1870, but fights continued to break out until additional federal troops were sent in to suppress the Ghost Dance of 1872. The war is unique among Indian Wars because it was a three-way conflict, with mounted Timpanogos Utes led by Antonga Black Hawk exploited by federal and LDS authorities.
On May 10, 1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed at Promontory Summit, north of the Great Salt Lake. The railroad brought increasing numbers of people into the state, and several influential businesspeople made fortunes in the territory.
During the 1870s and 1880s, laws were passed to punish polygamists, and in the 1890 Manifesto, the LDS Church banned polygamy. When Utah applied for statehood again, it was accepted. One of the conditions for granting Utah statehood was that a ban on polygamy be written into the state constitution. This was a condition required of other western states that were admitted into the Union later. Statehood was officially granted on January 4, 1896. Utah was the last state admitted in the Nineteenth century.

Mormon settlement
Beginning in the early 1900s, with the establishment of such national parks as Bryce Canyon National Park and Zion National Park, Utah began to become known for its natural beauty. Southern Utah became a popular filming spot for arid, rugged scenes, and such natural landmarks as Delicate Arch and "the Mittens" of Monument Valley are instantly recognizable to most national residents. During the 1950s, '60s, and '70s, with the construction of the Interstate highway system, accessibility to the southern scenic areas was made easier.
Beginning in 1939, with the establishment of Alta Ski Area, Utah has become world-renowned for its skiing. The dry, powdery snow of the Wasatch Range is considered some of the best skiing in the world. Salt Lake City won the bid for the 2002 Winter Olympics in 1995, and this has served as a great boost to the economy. The ski resorts have increased in popularity, and many of the Olympic venues scattered across the Wasatch Front continue to be used for sporting events. This also spurred the development of the light-rail system in the Salt Lake Valley, known as TRAX, and the re-construction of the freeway system around the city.
During the late 20th century, the state grew quickly. In the 1970s, growth was phenomenal in the suburbs. Sandy was one of the fastest-growing cities in the country at that time. Today, many areas of Utah are seeing phenomenal growth. Northern Davis, southern and western Salt Lake, Summit, eastern Tooele, Utah, Wasatch, and Washington counties are all growing very quickly. Transportation and urbanization are major issues in politics as development consumes agricultural land and wilderness areas.

1900s to present
The center of population of Utah is located in Utah County in the city of Lehi.

The largest ancestry groups in the state are:
Most Utahns are of Northern European descent.

29.0% English
11.5% German
6.8% American (Mostly British Descent)
6.5% Danish
5.9% Irish
4.4% Scottish
4.3% Swedish Utah Race and ancestry
A majority of the state's residents are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, sometimes called the Mormons or the LDS Church. As of 2004, the percentage of Utahns that are counted as members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is 62.4% of the state's population, The Mormons in Utah tend to have conservative views when it comes to most political issues and the majority of Utahns are registered Republicans.
The self identified religious affiliations of adults (note that numbers below do not include children, thus the disparity with the percentage identified above) living in Utah are:
Totals are rounded. Pentecostal, Judaism, Church of Christ, Non-denominational, United Church of Christ, Jehovah's Witness, Assemblies of God, Buddhist, Church of God, and the Seventh-day Adventist Church each represent less than .5% of the population.

Latter-day Saints - 62%
Roman Catholics - 6%
Episcopalians - 3%
Baptists - 2%
Other Christians - 3%
Evangelicals - 1%
Presbyterians - 1%
Lutherans - 1%
Methodists - 1%
Non-religious - 17%
Refused to identify - 4%
Other - 3%
Muslim - 1% Religion
Due to its high total birth rate (highest of any state in the U.S.), Utah has the youngest population of any state.
The age distribution in Utah is:
The gender makeup of Utah is:

9.4% under age 5
32.2% under age 18
59.3% ages 18 through 64
8.5% 65 or older
49.9% female
50.1% male Economy
Utah has a large tourism business and was host to the 2002 Winter Olympics. The ski resorts in the northern Wasatch Range, the Bonneville Salt Flats, the Great Salt Lake, the five national parks in the south, such as Arches, Zion and Bryce Canyon, and cultural attractions such as Temple Square, Sundance Film Festival, and the Utah Shakespearean Festival are among the most visited. For more information on Utah parks, outdoor recreation, lodging, and much more, please visit the official site of tourism for the state of Utah at

Beginning in the late 19th century with the state's mining boom (including the Bingham Canyon Mine, among the world's largest open pit mines), companies attracted large numbers of immigrants (of diverse faiths) with job opportunities. Since the days of the Utah Territory mining has played a major role in Utah's economy. Historical mining towns include Mercur in Tooele County, Silver Reef in Washington County, Eureka in Juab County, and Park City in Summit County were characteristic of the boom and bust cycle that dominated mining towns of the American West. During the early part of the Cold War era, uranium was mined in eastern Utah. Today mining activity still plays a major role in the state's economy. Minerals mined in Utah include copper, gold, silver, molybdenum, zinc, lead, and beryllium. Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum, and natural gas.

Further information: List of Utah State Routes and Utah Transit Authority
Interstate 15 is the main interstate highway in the state, entering from Arizona and spanning the state north-south, entering Idaho near Portage. It serves the primary population centers of the state, running past St. George and its suburbs (collectively known as Dixie) and Cedar City, and then spans the length of the Wasatch Front north-south, past such major cities as Provo, Orem, Sandy, West Jordan, Salt Lake City, Layton, and Ogden.
Interstate 80 spans the northern portion of the state west-east. It enters from Nevada at Wendover, traverses Salt Lake City (briefly merging with I-15 west of Downtown), then crosses the Wasatch Range, entering Wyoming just before reaching Evanston. Interstate 84 splits from I-80 at Echo, heading west through the Wasatch Range and joining I-15 southwest of Ogden. The two interstates stay merged until Tremonton, where I-84 heads northwest, entering Idaho near Snowville.
Interstate 70 splits from I-15 at Cove Fort, heading east through the mountains, past Richfield, and then east into Colorado west of Grand Junction, traversing desolate desert terrain and serving the various national parks and national monuments of southern Utah. The stretch of I-70 between Salina and Green River is the longest stretch of interstate in the country without any services.
A light rail system in the Salt Lake Valley, known as TRAX, consists of two lines, one providing access from Downtown Salt Lake City south to Sandy, and the other heading east to the University of Utah. The Utah Transit Authority (UTA), which operates TRAX, also operates a bus system that stretches across the Wasatch Front and into Tooele, and also provides winter service to the ski resorts east of Salt Lake City. Several bus companies provide access to the ski resorts in winter, and local bus companies also serve Logan, St. George and Cedar City. The Legacy Highway is a freeway that is currently under construction in southern Davis County to relieve congestion on I-15 through the area. A commuter rail line, named FrontRunner, is under construction between Salt Lake City and Pleasant View, north of Ogden. Both of these projects are expected to be completed in spring 2008. FrontRunner is expected to eventually span the Wasatch Front from Brigham City in the north to Payson in the south.
Salt Lake City International Airport is the only international airport in the state and serves as a hub of Delta Airlines. In 2005 it was ranked 1st in on-time departures and 2nd in on-time arrivals in the country, and consistently ranks in the top 10 for customer service. Canyonlands Field (near Moab), Cedar City Regional Airport, St. George Municipal Airport, and Vernal-Uintah County Airport all provide limited commercial air service to various regional destinations, as well (Vernal-Uintah County is only served by Salt Lake International). Ground has recently been broken on creating a new, larger regional airport for St. George, due to the rapidly-growing population and the lack of room for expansion for the current airport. Completion is expected in 2010. SkyWest Airlines is also based in St. George.

Further information: List of Utah GovernorsList of Utah State LegislaturesUtah State Senate, and Utah State House of Representatives
Utah government, like most U.S. states, is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The current governor of Utah is Jon Huntsman, Jr. The governor is elected for a four year term. The Utah State Legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. State senators serve four year terms and representatives two year terms. The Utah Legislature meets each year in January for an annual forty-five day session. The Utah Supreme Court is the court of last resort in Utah. It consists of five justices, who are appointed by the governor, and then subject to retention election. The Utah Court of Appeals handles cases from the trial courts. Trial level courts are the district courts and justice courts. All justices and judges, like those on the Utah Supreme Court, are subject to retention election after appointment.

Law and government
Utah granted full voting rights to women in 1870, 26 years before becoming a state. Among all U.S. states, only Wyoming granted suffrage to women earlier. However, in 1887 the Edmunds-Tucker Act was passed by Congress in an effort to curtail excessive Mormon influence in the territorial government. One of the provisions of the Act was the repeal of suffrage; full suffrage was not returned until Utah was admitted to the Union in 1896.

Early suffrage
The constitution of Utah was enacted in 1895. Notably, the constitution outlawed polygamy and reestablished the territorial practice of women's suffrage. Utah's Constitution has been amended many times since its inception.

Utah is also one of only two states in the United States to outlaw all forms of gambling; the other is Hawaii. Utah is an alcoholic beverage control state. The Utah Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control regulates the sale of alcohol; wine and spirituous liquors may only be purchased at state liquor stores, and local laws may prohibit the sale of beer and other alcoholic beverages on Sundays.

Other laws
Historically, politics in Utah have been controversial, such as the Federal government versus the LDS Church on the issue of polygamy. The LDS Church renounced polygamy in 1890, and in 1896, Utah gained admission to the Union. Many new people settled the area soon after the Mormon pioneers. Relations have often been strained between the LDS population and the non-LDS population.


Main articles: List of cities in Utah and List of cities in Utah (by population) Important cities and towns
Utah has recently enacted a universal school voucher program.


Brigham Young University in Provo
College of Eastern Utah in Price
Dixie State College of Utah (formerly Dixie College) in St. George
ITT Technical Institute in Murray
LDS Business College in Salt Lake City
Neumont University in South Jordan
Provo College in Provo
Salt Lake Community College in Taylorsville
Snow College in Ephraim and Richfield
Southern Utah University (formerly Southern Utah State College) in Cedar City
Stevens-Henager College at various locations statewide
University of Phoenix at various locations statewide
University of Utah in Salt Lake City
Utah College of Massage Therapy in Salt Lake City
Utah State University in Logan (satellite campuses at various state locations)
Utah Valley State College (Utah Valley University effective July 2008) in Orem
Weber State University in Ogden
Western Governors University an online university, begun by former Utah Governor, Michael O. Leavitt
Westminster College in Salt Lake City Colleges and universities
The Utah Jazz of the National Basketball Association play in the EnergySolutions Arena
Salt Lake Bees of the Pacific Coast League in Franklin Covey Field in Salt Lake City
Ogden Raptors of the Pioneer League in Lindquist Field in Ogden
Orem Owlz of the Pioneer League in Brent Brown Ballpark in Orem
Utah Grizzlies of the ECHL in the E Center in West Valley City
Utah Blaze of the Arena Football League at the EnergySolutions Arena in Salt Lake City Utah Sports

Popular recreational destinations within the mountains besides the ski resorts include Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area, Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Bear Lake, and Jordanelle, Strawberry, Pineview Reservoir, East Canyon, and Rockport reservoirs. The mountains are popular camping, rock-climbing, skiing, snowboarding, and hiking destinations.
The USS Utah was named in honor of this state.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster is built and serviced by the Thiokol division of ATK, which has its facilities in Promontory Point. Boosters are tested periodically at a proving grounds in the Wasatch Range.
According to a study based on prescription claims from one mail-order pharmaceutical provider, Miscellaneous

Roseanne Barr - Comedian, actress, writer, talk-show host.
Shawn Bradley - Former NBA player.
John Moses Browning - Designer of popular firearms like the M2 .50 caliber machine gun and the Colt Model 1911 .45 semi-automatic handgun.
Butch Cassidy - Outlaw.
Gary Coleman - Relocated to Utah after the filming of the movie Church Ball.
Andre Dyson - NFL player
Kevin Dyson - NFL player
Marriner Eccles - Banker, economist, and Chairman of the Federal Reserve during Roosevelt and Truman administrations.
Philo Farnsworth - Inventor of the electronic television.
John D. Fitzgerald - Author of The Great Brain series of children's books.
Brandon Flowers - Lead singer of The Killers (although born in Las Vegas he was raised in Nephi, Utah)
Jake Garn - Former U.S. Senator and one-time astronaut.
John Gilbert - Silent-film actor.
John D. Lee- Early Mormon Church leader. The only man convicted in the Mountain Meadows Massacre.
Orrin Hatch - U.S. Senator
Jon Huntsman, Sr. - Businessman, philanthropist.
Jewel - Musician, author.
Chad Lewis - NFL player
Maddox - Internet satirist and author of The Best Page In The Universe and The Alphabet of Manliness.
John Willard Marriott - Founder of worldwide hotel business Marriott International, Inc..
Bert McCracken - Lead singer of The Used Raised in Utah, moved away at age 18.
Larry H. Miller - Businessman, philanthropist.
Merlin Olsen - Former National Football League player and actor.
Donny Osmond - Singer, actor, former talk-show host.
Marie Osmond - Singer, actor, businesswoman.
The Osmonds - Show-business family, former pop-music group.
Neil Papiano - Internationally prominent Los Angeles lawyer
Kim Peek - The world renowned savant that the title character of "Rain Man" was modeled after.
Robert Redford - Actor, director, movie producer, environmentalist, philanthropist
Cael Sanderson - Four-time NCAA champion wrestler, 2004 Olympic Gold Medal winner, and current wrestling coach of his alma-mater Iowa State. Grew up in Heber City.
Brent Scowcroft - National Security Advisor to presidents Gerald Ford and George H. W. Bush.
SheDaisy - Country music group. All 3 members born in Utah.
Branden Steineckert - Drummer of Rancid and ex-drummer of The Used, was raised in Utah from an early age and currently lives there, but was born in Idaho.
Mack Swain - Vaudeville performer and silent-film actor.
The band The Used was formed in Utah, all current members were born there.
Mike Weir - Professional golfer.
Scott Wolf - Actor.
James Woods - Born in Vernal, Utah. A well renowned actor, appearing in several major motion pictures, including Casino. As well as many high profile videogames, including Grand Theft Auto San Andreas.
Loretta Young - Actress
Mahonri Young - Sculptor and artist.
Steve Young - Hall of Fame quarterback for San Francisco 49ers, won NFL's Most Valuable Player award 1992 and 1994, direct descendant of Brigham Young.
David Zabriskie cyclist, stage winner in all three grand tours,yellow jersey holder, national TT champion
It is worth noting that the band Utah Saints are not from the state at all but from Leeds, England. Famous Utahns
The state of Utah relies heavily on income from tourists and travelers taking advantage of the state's ski resorts and natural beauty, and thus the need to "brand" Utah and create an impression of the state throughout the world has led to several state slogans, the most famous of which being "The Greatest Snow on Earth," which has been in use in Utah officially since 1975 (although the slogan was in unofficial use as early as 1962) and now adorns nearly 50% of the state's license plates. In 2001, Utah Governor Mike Leavitt approved a new state slogan, "Utah! Where Ideas Connect," which lasted until March 10, 2006, when the Utah Travel Council and the office of Governor Jon Huntsman announced that "Life Elevated" would be the new state slogan.
At Dream Theater's Salt Lake City show, Governor Jon Huntsman, Jr. signed a proclamation making July 30th, 2007 "Dream Theater Day" in the state of Utah.

Utah is the setting of or the filming location for many books, films, A selective list of each appears below.

In entertainment

Harry Turtledove's Timeline-191, which is set in a North America where the South won the Civil War, mentions Utah several times. The state's Mormon population rebels against the United States in an attempt to create the Nation of Deseret throughout the series, which results in battles in and around Salt Lake City, Provo, and other locations.
In Around the World in Eighty Days, the characters pass through Utah by train.
The children's series The Great Brain is set in a fictional town that is based on Price, Utah.
Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang is set in Southern Utah and Northern Arizona. The characters' ultimate goal is the destruction of the Glen Canyon Dam. Books
See also: Category:Films shot in Utah

SLC Punk! takes place in Salt Lake City.
Broken Arrow was filmed in Moab.
Some scenes in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade were filmed in Moab.
Scenes from Dumb and Dumber were filmed in Utah.
High School Musical was shot at East High School.
Scenes of "The Charlotte" from National Treasure were filmed at Strawberry Reservoir
Footloose was shot in Payson and Lehi
Three O'Clock High was shot at Ogden High School
Independence Day
Con Air
Drive Me Crazy was shot at Ogden High School
Carnival of Souls
The Cheyenne Social Club
Harry in Your Pocket
Head, (The Monkees)
The World's Fastest Indian
Jeremiah Johnson
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
The Eiger Sanction
The Electric Horseman
The Car
Airport 1975
2001: A Space Odyssey
Easy Rider
Electra Glide in Blue
How the West Was Won
The Trial of Billy Jack
National Lampoon's Vacation
Rio Grande, (John Wayne, John Ford)
Mission: Impossible
Thelma & Louise filmed in Moab, near Arches National Park and Dead Horse Point State Park
The Sandlot was filmed in Ogden
Galaxy Quest
Some parts of Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest and Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End were shot at the Salt Flats
Driven through and mentioned in Anywhere but Here
Mobsters and Mormons Television

Moab Jeep Safari
Mormon Corridor
Mormon Miracle Pageant
Mormon Tabernacle Choir
Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains
Music of Utah
Scouting in Utah
Sundance Film Festival
Utah Highway Patrol
Utah Jazz
Utah Shakespearean Festival in Cedar City
Utah Symphony Orchestra, which performs in Abravanel Hall in Salt Lake City

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